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Sinomicrurus boettgeri (FRITZE, 1894)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Boettger’s Coral Snake 
SynonymCalliophis boettgeri FRITZE 1894
Callophis japonicus BOULENGER 1892: 302 (part.)
Hemibungarus japonicus — BOULENGER 1896: 395
Hemibungarus boettgeri — STEJNEGER 1907: 389
Calliophis japonicus — THOMPSON 1913: 511 (part.)
Calliophis japonicus japonicus — LOVERIDGE 1946: 153
Hemibungarus boettgeri — SCLATER 1950: 115
Calliophis japonicus boettgeri — KOBA 1962: 92
Calliophis japonicus boettgeri — TAKARA 1962: 75 (part.)
Hemibungarus japonicus boettgeri — TORIBA in GOLAY et al. 1993: 141
Micrurus japonicus boettgeri — WELCH 1994: 85 (part.)
Hemibungarus japonicus boettgeri — OTA, ITO & LIN 1999
Hemibungarus japonicus takarai OTA, ITO & LIN, 1999
Sinomicrurus japonicus boettgeri — GORIS & MAEDA 2004: 246
Sinomicrurus japonicus boettgeri — KAITO et al. 2017
Sinomicrurus boettgeri — SMART et al. 2021 
DistributionJapan (Tokunoshima of the Amami Group, and Okinawajima, Gushikawajima, and Okinawajima of the Okinawa Group)  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 9395 a, collected on 5 August 1891 
DiagnosisComparisons: S. japonicus tends to have fewer dentary teeth (13–14) than S. boettgeri (14–18 in), a vertebral stripe at two head lengths behind neck occupying 1/2 or less of the paravertebral scale row vs. >1/2 in S. boettgeri, and body bands usually not bordered by white as opposed to usually bordered by white in S. boettgeri). In addition, sulcus spermaticus of the hemipenes is centripetal in S. japonicus vs. centripetal-revolute in S. boettgeri, less than 15 spines around main body vs. >15, respectively, the basal pocket is extremely shallow to absent vs. shallow, respectively, and the base is more than 55% of organ length vs. <55%, respectively (Smart et al. 2021: 2255). 
CommentVenomous!

See also S. japonicus.

Synonymy: mainly after OTA et al. 1999. Previous authors regarded C. boettgeri as a junior synonym of C. japonicus (e.g. Boulenger 1896; Thompson 1913; Loveridge 1946; Nakamura and Ueno 1963). Other authors recognized the validity of boettgeri as a subspecies of japonicus (e.g. Koba 1962, 1977; Takara 1962).

Subspecies: Smart et al. 2021 consider boettgeri as a valid species but without much discussion.

Conservation: H. j. japonicus and H. j. boettgeri are classified as “near threatened” in Japan (Ota 2000). 
References
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1892. Description of new reptiles and batrachians from the Loo Choo Islands. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 10: 302-304 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Fritze,A. 1894. Die Fauna der Liu-Kiu-Insel Okinawa. Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 7: 852-926 - get paper here
  • Golay,P, H.M. SMITH, D.G. BROADLEY, J. R. DIXON, C., MCCARTHY, J. C. RAGE, B. SCHÀTTI & M.TORIBA 1993. Endoglyphs and other major venomous snakes of the world. A checklist. [type catalogue] Aire-Genève, Azemiops S. A. Herpetological Data Center: i-xv + 1-478.
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Kaito, T., Ota, H. and Toda, M. 2017. The evolutionary history and taxonomic reevaluation of the Japanese coral snake, Sinomicrurus japonicus (Serpentes, Elapidae), endemic to the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, by use of molecular and morphological analyses. J Zool Syst Evol Res.; doi:10.1111/jzs.12162 - get paper here
  • Koba,K. 1962. Studies on the snakes of the genus Trimeresurus of the Amami and Tokara islands, Japan [in Japanese]. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo.
  • Loveridge,A. 1946. Reptiles of the Pacific World. MacMillan Publ. Co., New York.
  • Ota, Hidetoshi, Akiko Ito and Jun-Tsong Lin. 1999. Systematic review of the Elapid snakes allied to Hemibungarus japonicus (Günther, 1868) in the East Asian Islands, with description of a new subspecies from the central Ryukyus. Journal of Herpetology 33 (4): 675-687 - get paper here
  • Sclater, J.A. 1950. Bionomic notes on some reptiles form Okinawa Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 3: 113-116
  • Smart, U., Ingrasci, M. J., Sarker, G. C., Lalremsanga, H., Murphy, R. W., Ota, H., Tu, M. C., Shouche, Y., Orlov, N. L., & Smith, E. N. 2021. A comprehensive appraisal of evolutionary diversity in venomous Asian coralsnakes of the genus Sinomicrurus (Serpentes: Elapidae) using Bayesian coalescent inference and supervised machine learning. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 59, 2212–2277 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Takara,T. 1962. Studies on the terrestrial snakes in the Ryukyu Archipelago [In Japanese with English summary]. Sci. Bull. Agr. Home Econ. Div., Univ. Ryukyus (9): 1-202
  • Thompson, J.C. 1913. Contributions to the synonymy of Serpentes in the family Elapidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 65: 508-514 - get paper here
  • Welch, K. R. G. 1994. Snakes of the World. A Checklist. I. Venomous snakes. KCM Books, Somerset, England.
 
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