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Sonora palarostris KLAUBER, 1937

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesSonora palarostris organica KLAUBER 1951
Sonora palarostris palarostris (KLAUBER 1937) 
Common NamesE: Sonoran Shovelnose Snake
organica: Organ Pipe Shovelnose Snake
G: Sonora-Schaufelnasenschlange
S: Rostro de Pala de Sonora 
SynonymSonora palarostris KLAUBER 1937
Chionactis occipitalis palarostris — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 344
Chionactis palarostris — STEBBINS 1985: 214
Chionactis palarostris — LINER 1994
Chionactis palarostris — CROTHER et al. 2012
Chionactis palarostris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 160
Sonora (Chionactis) palarostris — COX et al. 2018: 976
Chionactis palarostris — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2019

Sonora palarostris organica KLAUBER, 1951: 178
Chionactis palarostris organica — CROTHER 2000: 58
Chionactis palarostris organica — CROTHER et al. 2012
Sonora palarostris organica — COX et al. 2018 
DistributionUSA (S Arizona),
Mexico (Sonora)

organica: USA (Arizona); Type locality: on the Sonoyta-Ajo road, 9 miles north of the US-Mexican border, in the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Pima Conty, Arizona.

Type locality: “5 miles south of Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico”  
TypesHolotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 26771.
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 40673 [organica] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Sonora palarostris can be distinguished from all other Sonora, except S. occipitalis and S. palarostris, by the presence of a flattened, spadelike rostrum. Whereas both S. occipitalis and S. annulata, have more than 23 crossbands, S. palarostris has fewer than 23 crossbands (Cox et al. 2018: 976).

Variation: This species is monomorphic for a mimetic phenotype with both red and black cross-bands on a buff or tan background, giving the appearance of a tricoloured snake. There are currently two subspecies that are recognized: Chionactis palarostris palarostris and Chionactis palarostris organica (Cox et al. 2018: 976). 
CommentSubspecies: Cox et al. 2018 are a bit ambiguous of whether thes subspecies are still recognized. They list organica as a synonym but then say that there are two recognized subspecies. 
  • Cox, Christian L.; Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Iris A. Holmes, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Corey E. Roelke, Eric N. Smith, Oscar Flores-Villela, Jimmy A. McGuire & Jonathan A. Campbell 2018. Synopsis and taxonomic revision of three genera in the snake tribe Sonorini. Journal of Natural History 52: 945-988 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1937. A new snake of the genus Sonora from Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 8 (27): 363-366 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1951. The shovel-nosed snake, Chionactis with descriptions of two new subspecies. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 11 (9): 141-204 - get paper here
  • Kunz, Kriton 2015. Schlangen, die Wirbellose fressen. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (5): 14-20 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Mahrdt, Clark R., Kent R. Beaman, Philip C. Rosen and Peter A. Holm 2001. Chionactis Cope Shovel-nosed Snakes. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (730): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Mahrdt, Clark R., Kent R. Beaman, Philip C. Rosen and Peter A. Holm 2001. Chionactis palarostris (Klauber) Sonoran Shovel-nosed Snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (732): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de los Reyes; Manuel, David Lazcano, Javier Banda-Leal and Ian Recchio 2014. Notes on Mexican Herpetofauna 22: Herpetofauna of the Continental Portion of the Municipality of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 49(8):105-115 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pregill, Gregory K.;Berrian, James E. 1984. Type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the San Diego Natural History Museum. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 20 (10): 151-164 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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