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Stegonotus muelleri DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854

IUCN Red List - Stegonotus muelleri - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Philippine groundsnake, Müller’s Ratsnake 
SynonymStegonotus Mülleri DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 682
Herpetodryas Mülleri — JAN 1863: 81
Spilotes samarensis PETERS 1861: 685
Stegonotus muelleri — BOULENGER 1893: 367
Stegonotus muelleri — TAYLOR 1922: 129
Stegonotus muelleri — BAUER et al. 1995: 74
Stegonotus mülleri — GAULKE 2010
Stegonotus muelleri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 686
Stegnotus muelleri — SANGUILA et al. 2016 (in error)
Stegonotus muelleri — KAISER et al. 2018: 16 
DistributionPhilippines (Mindanao, Samar, Leyte, Dinagat)

Type locality: corrected to “southern Philippines” by Kaiser et al. 2018.

Type locality: “Cubo-Cubo, Insel Samar” [Cobocóbo, northern Samar Island, The Philippines]. [samarensis]  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 0848 fide Kaiser et al. 2018. Given as MNHN 5764 und 5764a by other sources in error
Holotype: ZMB 4294, adult male. Collected by the German ethnologist and collector Fedor Jagor (1816-1900) during the first half of 1859 [samarensis] 
DiagnosisAccording to Kaiser et al. 2018 it is next to impossible to diagnose the genus Stegonotus as many characters overlap with Lycodon and there is still no molecular analysis that integrates both genera.

Characteristics include V (female) = 217–234 (227 ± 4.7), V (female) = 226– 241 (235 ± 3.1); SC (female) = 86–103 (97 ± 5.3), SC (male) = 85–108 (97 ± 7.0); SCR(female) = 0.29, SCR (male) = 0.30; D = 19-17-15 (100%); SLE = 4+5 (100%); SL = 8 (100%); IL = 10 (100%); ILG = 4 (100%).

Comparison: For a comprehensive comparison of species, especially to the new species Stegonotus ayamaru, see that entry and Kaiser et al. 2019. 
CommentSynonymy partly after BOULENGER 1893.

Distribution: the original type locality, “Java”, was given in error.

Type species: Stegonotus Mülleri DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 682 is the type species of the genus Stegonotus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854. 
EtymologyNamed after Johannes Peter Müller (1801-1858), German biologist and anatomist.
Named after Samar Island, where the type specimen was collected. [samarensis]  
  • Barnes, Curt H.; Tyler K. Knierim 2018. A novel cave habitat use and range extension for the cryptic snake Stegonotus muelleri (Serpentes: Colubridae). Phyllomedusa 17 (2): 295-297 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2010. Höhlenbewohner auf den Philippinen. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (85): 38-45 - get paper here
  • Kaiser, Christine M.; Hinrich Kaiser & Mark O'Shea 2018. The taxonomic history of Indo-Papuan groundsnakes, genus Stegonotus Duméril et al., 1854 (Colubridae), with some taxonomic revisions and the designation of a neotype for S. parvus (Meyer, 1874). Zootaxa 4512 (1): 001–073 - get paper here
  • KAISER, CHRISTINE M.; JACK LAPIN, MARK O’SHEA & HINRICH KAISER 2020. Carefully examining Bornean Stegonotus (Serpentes, Colubridae): the montane groundsnake population in Sabah is a new and distinct species. Zootaxa 4894 (1): 053–068 - get paper here
  • KAISER, CHRISTINE M.; MARK O’SHEA, HINRICH KAISER 2019. A new species of Indo-Papuan groundsnake, genus Stegonotus Duméril et al., 1854 (Serpentes, Colubridae), from the Bird’s Head Peninsula of West Papua, Indonesia, with comments on differentiating morphological characters. Zootaxa 4590 (2): 201-230 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Cameron D. Siler, Jeffrey L. Weinell, and Rafe M. Brown 2018. Synopsis of the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 64 (14): 399-568 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1861. Eine zweite Übersicht (vergl. Monatsberichte 1859 p. 269) der von Hrn. F. Jagor auf Malacca, Java, Borneo und den Philippinen gesammelten und dem Kgl. zoologischen Museum übersandten Schlangen. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1861 (Juli): 683-691 [1862 on title page] - get paper here
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1922. The snakes of the Philippine Islands. Manila (Bureau of Printing or Science), Monograph 16: 312 pp. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L.; Errol Hooper, Alan E. Leviton, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Illustrated Key to the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 66 (1): 1-49 - get paper here
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