Stellagama stellio (LINNAEUS, 1758)
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Stellagama stellio?
|Higher Taxa||Agamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)|
|Subspecies||Stellagama stellio brachydactyla (HAAS 1951)|
Stellagama stellio cypriaca (DAAN 1967)
Stellagama stellio daani (BEUTLER & FRÖR 1980)
Stellagama stellio picea (PARKER 1935)
Stellagama stellio stellio (LINNAEUS 1758)
Stellagama stellio vulgaris (SONNINI & LATREILLE 1801)
|Common Names||E: Roughtail Rock Agama|
Turkish: Dikenli keler
brachydactyla: Short-Toed Rock Agama
|Synonym||Lacerta stellio LINNAEUS 1758: 202|
Iguana cordylina LAURENTI 1768: 47
Agama cordylea MERREM 1820: 55 (nom. subst. pro Iguana cordylina)
Agama sebae MERREM 1820: 55 (nom. subst. pro Iguana cordylina)
Stellio antiquorum EICHWALD 1831: 187 (nom. subst. pro Lacerta stellio)
Lacerta stellio — CUVIER 1831: 120
Uromastix horrida WAGLER 1833: 902 (nom. subst. pro Lacerta stellio)
Agama stellio — BOULENGER 1885: 368
Agama stellio — WERMUTH 1967: 24
Agama stellio — GRUBER & FUCHS 1977
Agama stellio mykonensis XYDA 1983: 115
Agama stellio — SOWIG 1989
Stellio stellio — KASPAREK 1990
Stellio stellio — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Placoderma stellio — KASAPIDIS et al. 1996
Laudakia stellio — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 78
Agama stellio — CLARK 2000
Agama stelio [sic] — HONDA et al. 2000
Laudakia stellio — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Stellagama stellio — BAIG et al. 2012
Laudakia stellio — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020
Laudakia stellio stellio (LINNAEUS 1758)
Lacerta stellio LINNAEUS 1758: 202
Stellio cyprius FITZINGER 1843: 85 (nom. nud.; syn fide ANDERSON 1898)
Agama stellio stellio — MERTENS & MÜLLER 1940: 24
Agama stellio stellio — WERMUTH 1967: 24
Stellagama stellio stellio — BAIG et al. 2012: 227
Laudakia stellio stellio — SINDACO et al. 2014
Laudakia stellio brachydactyla (HAAS 1951)
Agama stellio brachydactyla HAAS 1951: 1052
Agama stellio brachydactyla — WERMUTH 1967: 24
Laudakia stellio brachydactyla — DIECKMANN 2010
Stellagama stellio brachydactyla — BAIG et al. 2012: 224
Laudakia stellio brachydactyla — AL-SHAMMARI 2012
Laudakia stellio brachydactyla — SINDACO et al. 2014
Laudakia stellio cypriaca (DAAN 1967)
Stellio cyprius FITZINGER 1843: 85 (nomen nudum fide ANDERSON 1898)
Stellio cordylina GÜNTHER 1879: 741 (nomen nudum)
Agama stellio cypriaca DAAN 1967: 127
Laudakia stellio cypriaca — GÖCMEN et al. 2003
Stellagama stellio cypriaca — BAIG et al. 2012: 225
Laudakia stellio cypriaca — SCHNEIDER 2020
Laudakia stellio daani (BEUTLER & FRÖR 1980)
Agama stellio daani BEUTLER & FRÖR 1980: 270
Agama stellio daani — IOANNIDES et al. 1994
Laudakia stellio daani — BUDAK et al. 1998
Laudakia stellio daani — SCHLÜTER 2010
Stellagama stellio daani — BAIG et al. 2012: 225
Laudakia stellio picea (PARKER 1935)
Agama stellio picea PARKER 1935: 137
Agama stellio picea — WETTSTEIN 1951: 436
Agama stellio picea — WERMUTH 1967: 24
Agama stellio picea — CHILDRESS 1970
Agama stellio picea — ESTERBAUER 1985
Laudakia stellio picea — VERHOEKS 2003
Stellagama stellio picea — BAIG et al. 2012: 226
Laudakia stellio vulgaris (SONNINI & LATREILLE 1801)
Stellio vulgaris SONNINI & LATREILLE 1801: 22
Stellio vulgaris — EVERSMANN 1834: 368
Stellio vulgaris — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 528
Stellio vulgaris — BOETTGER 1879: 78
Agama stellio brachydactyla HAAS 1951: 1052 (part)
Agama stellio vulgaris — SCHMIDT & MARX 1956: 26
Agama stellio vulgaris — WERMUTH 1967: 25
Laudakia stellio salehi WERNER in LACHMANN et al. 2006
Stellagama stellio salehi — BAIG et al. 2012: 227
Stellagama stellio vulgaris — BAIG et al. 2012: 228
|Distribution||Greece (incl. Lesbos, Paros, Antiparos, Despotiko, Kalymnos, Paxos, Corfu = Corfou, Chios, Samos, Agathonisi, Delos, Mikro Rhematiaris, Mykonos, Naxos, Rhineia, Tinos, Chalki, Kastelorizo, Kos, Leros, Nisyros, Patmos, Rhodos, Symi, Telendos, Tilos, Fourni, Ikaria, Thimena, Syrni, Karpathos, C Macedonia), Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, Jordan, Israel|
brachydactyla: N Saudi Arabia, S Israel, Sinai, Jordan. Type locality: Jebel Lussan at the border between Israel and Sinai, south-south-west of Beer-Sheba.
cypriaca: Cyprus; Type locality: “Limasol, Cyprus.”
daani: Saloniki, islands in the Aegian Sea (Antiparos, Despotiko, Naxos, Paros, Samos, Thimena, Syrni, Chalki, Kalymnos, Kastelorizo, Kos, Leros, Nisyros, Rhodos, Symi, Telendos, Tilos, Lesbos, Chios, Fourni, Ikaria); Turkey (W and SW Turkey), Macedonia; Type locality: “Zw. Agh. Kirikos u. Evdilos, Ikaria, Region Samos, Griechenland [= between Agh. Kirikos and Evdilos, Ikaria, Samos Region, Greece.].”
picea: SW Syria, S Lebanon, N Israel, NW Jordan. Type locality: Black Lava Desert of Transjordania (32° 10’ N, 36° 40’ E).
salehi: Israel (Sinai); Type locality: “Sinai: 3 km from Sheikh Harun towards Watiya Pass, 28° 35’30’’ N, 33° 59’ E, 1650 m elevation”.
stellio: Cyclades (Mikro Rhematiaris, Rhineia, Mykonos Islands, Delos, Paros, Antiparos, Naxos), Sporades, Rhodos, Ionian Islands (Korfu); Turkey (central, south and southeast Turkey); Jordan. Type locality: Delos, Aegypto, Africa. Restricted to Delos Island, Greece by MERTENS & MÜLLER 1928. Restricted to Nissí Dílos (= Delos island), Greece, by neotype designation. Type locality restricted by neotype (Crochet et al. 2006) to “Delos Island, Cyclades”.
vulgaris: N Egypt. Type locality: restricted to “Unter-Ägypten” (MERTENS & WERMUTH 1960) and “El Amiria, Alexandria Gov., Lower Egypt.” by neotype designation (CROCHET et al. 2006).
Stellio cyprius: Type locality: “Asia. Ins. Cyprus.”
Stellio cordylina: Type locality: “Cyprus.”
|Reproduction||oviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein).|
|Types||Neotype: ZFMK 2063 (designated by Crochet et al. 2006); Holotype: lost (Andersson 1900).|
Holotype: HUJ (Hebrew University) Col!ection Nr.1801 [brachydactyla]
Holotype: BMNH 19188.8.131.52 [cypriaca]
Holotype: ZSM 201/1978/2 (given as ZSM 201/1978-1) [daani]
Syntypes: BMNH [picea]
Holotype: HUJ R 10732, male, probably summer 1968, probably coll. Abraham Haim [salehi]
Syntype: MNHN-RA 2624 [vulgaris]
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis (Stellagama). Tail arranged in distinct segments of two scale whorls, sometimes three in distal half. Vertebral scales heterogeneous, irregular, keeled, often larger than other dorsals scales. Gular scales keeled. Tail length about one and half times the distance of snout-vent [BAIG et al. 2012].|
Diagnosis (brachydactyla). Head slightly depressed; wide band of enlarged vertebral scales, enlarged body scales heterogeneous, irregular, usually smooth, transverse rows of enlarged scales hardly distinguishable; usually 5–7 yellowish vertebral bloches; tail segment of two whorls which may contain a third in distal half; 3–5 rows of callous precloacal glands and a stripe at abdomen in males only [BAIG et al. 2012].
Diagnosis (cypriaca). Head only slightly depressed with swollen cheeks; vertebral scales heterogeneous, irregular, keeled, larger than other dorsal scales, mid-vertebral scales moderately large and sometimes interrupted by transverse rows of highly enlarged mucronate scales; tail at least one and half times the distance of snout-vent; yellowish vertebral bloches rarely visible; tail segment of two which changes into three in distal half; 3–5 rows of precloacal callous glands and a stripe at the abdomen in males only [BAIG et al. 2012].
Diagnosis (daani). Larger size than other subspecies; head and body moderately depressed, head dorsally coloured like back or darker, not distinctly coloured from back, back with usually 4 – 5 yellowish vertebral blotches on dark grey ground color, belly whitish, throat whitish ground colour, spotted dark usually over half of the area; vertebral scales heterogeneous, irregular, keeled, larger than other small dorsals, mid-vertebral moderately large and interrupted at regular intervals by transverse series of highly enlarged mucronate scales; 3 – 5 rows of precloacal callous glands with more than 30 scales; tail segment of two whorls, tail length about one and half times the distance of snout-vent [BAIG et al. 2012].
Diagnosis (picea). Smaller size than other subspecies; head and body much depressed; colour black; vertebral scales heterogeneous, irregular, keeled, larger than other small dorsals, mid-vertebral moderately large and interrupted at regular intervals by transverse rows of enlarged mucronate scales; tail segment of two scale whorls , tail length about 20% more than the distance of snout-vent [BAIG et al. 2012].
Diagnosis (salehi). Broad band of enlarged vertebral scales, body scales heterogenous, tail segment of two scale rows. Differs from the similar S. s. brachydactyla as follows: band of somewhat enlarged vertebral scales with transverse rows of greatly enlarged scales, separated by smaller scales, enlarged scales on the left and right side; longer toes with an average of 18.5 subdigitalia; dorsal colouration with light markings forming numerous narrow transverse bars. This taxon differs from Stellagama s. vulgaris in having dorsal enlarged scales over the pelvis juxtaposed in transverse rows [BAIG et al. 2012]. Note, however, that Kadry et al. 2020 synonymized salehi with vulgaris.
Diagnosis (stellio). Head moderately depressed; vertebral scales heterogeneous, irregular, keeled, larger than other small dorsals, mid-vertebral moderately large and interrupted at regular intervals by a series of transverse highly enlarged mucronate scales (this pattern is almost unique among all populations of S. stellio, as usually the vertebral band interrupts the transverse rows tubercles); tail segment of two whorls, tail length about one and half times the distance of snout-vent; colouration highly variable (usually 4–5 yellowish vertebral bloches on dark grey ground color); 3–5 rows of precloacal callous glands and small stripe at abdomen in males. Males possessing yellow to red heads during nuptial conditions [BAIG et al. 2012].
Diagnosis (vulgaris). Medium size; head and body depressed; dull brown color, vertebral blotches broken and indistinct; vertebral band of enlarged scales narrow; tail segment of two whorls [BAIG et al. 2012].
|Comment||Synonymy and subspecies mainly after WERMUTH 1967 and BAIG et al. 2012.|
Illustration in BARTS & WILMS 2003. Illustration of L. s. daani in Elaphe 12 (1): 61 .
Subspecies: However, recently the taxonomic distinction of Laudakia stellio daani from Laudakia stellio stellio was challenged and tentatively rejected by Baig (1992) in his treatise of the stellio-group of ‘‘Agama’’. He demoted L. s. daani to the synonymy of L. s. stellio, whose distribution, he concluded, extends all the way to Israel. Baig mainly argued that Beutler and Frör (1980) had examined insufficient material but presumably he was aware also of the morphological conformity of the two nominal subspecies. Laudakia stellio and L. brachydactyla are semispecies according to Panov & Zykova (1998) and have recently been split into 2 subspecies, brachydactyla and salehi by LACHMAN et al. (2006). Kadry et al. 2020 synonymized Stellagama stellio salehi with S. s. vulgaris.
L. s. stellio is more colourful than L. s. daani; its sexual dimorphism is mainly chromatic, versus mensural in L. s. daani; and its population seems to include many males with underdeveloped callous scales, presumably socially subordinate, versus very few in L. s. daani. In L. s. daani the top of the head is blackish grey, similar to the back, while in A. s. stellio the back of the head is yellow to red. In L. s. daani the throat is mostly amply spotted with black, and only rarely marbled; in contrast, L. s. stellio is characterized by an unspotted, at most weakly marbled, throat [ALMOG et al. 2005].
Distribution: The type locality restriction by Mertens and Müller (1928: 26) to Delos Island, Cyclades is invalid (no lectotype or neotype designation).
Type species: Lacerta stellio Linnaeus 1758 is the type species of Stellagama BAIG et al. 2012.
Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic names Adelynkimberleyea Hoser 2012, Agamatajikistanensis Hoser 2012, Jackyindigoea Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected their use instead of Laudakia.
|Etymology||Etymology (Stellagama). The choosen nomen is a composition of the nomina Stellio (as allusion of the formerly used name of the genus) and Agama (to show the affiliation to the Agamidae). But ‘Stella’ is also the latin word for star which refers to the English common name ‘starred agama’.|
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