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Sternotherus carinatus (GRAY, 1856)

IUCN Red List - Sternotherus carinatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae (Kinosterninae), Kinosternoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Razorback Musk Turtle
G: Gekielte Moschusschildkröte, Dach-Moschusschildkröte 
SynonymAromochelys carinata GRAY 1856: 266
Goniochelys triquetra AGASSIZ 1857
Cinosternum carinatum BOULENGER 1889
Aromochelys carinatus — RHOADS 1895: 384
Aromochelys carinatus — BRIMLEY 1910
Sternotherus carinatus — STEJNEGER 1923
Sternotherus carinatus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991
Kinosternon carinatum — BECKER & MÜLLER 1997
Sternotherus carinatus — CROTHER 2000
Kinosternon carinatum — BONIN et al 2006
Sternotherus carinatus — TTWG 2021 
DistributionUSA (Gulf Coastal Plain of (Alabama, SE Oklahoma, C/S Arkansas, Mississippi, E Texas, Louisiana)

Type locality: "Louisiana"; restricted to "vicinity of New Orleans," Louisiana, U.S.A., by Schmidt (1953:87).  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1947.3.4.32, 1947.3.4.64, 1947.3.4.83, and 1947.3.4.84. 
CommentHistory: Gray presented this species in the meeting of the Zoological Society on 13 November 1855. However, the printed description was published only in September 1856 (M. Lambertz, pers. comm., 17 Dec 2012).

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, quiet rivers) 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “carinatus” = keeled (like a ship). 
  • Allen, Morrow J. 1932. A survey of the Amphibians and reptiles of Harrison County, Mississippi. American Museum Novitates (542): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Atkinson, C. L. 2012. Sternotherus carinatus (razor-backed musk turtle) reproduction. Herpetological Review 43: 639-640 - get paper here
  • Atkinson, Carla L. A 2013. Razor-backed Musk Turtle (Sternotherus carinatus) Diet Across a Gradient of Invasion. Herp. Cons. Biol. 8 (3) - get paper here
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • BASSETT, L. G., F. E. ZUGHAIYIR, A. M. A. BOHANNON, AND M. R. J. FORSTNER 2020. Sternotherus carinatus (Razor-Backed Musk Turtle). USA: Texas: Lampasas Co. Herpetological Review 51: 270-271.
  • Becker, H. 1992. Beobachtungen bei der Haltung und Nachzucht von Sternotherus carinatus (GRAY, 1856). Salamandra 28 (1): 9-15 - get paper here
  • Becker, H. 1995. Schlupf im Terrarium - Nachzucht von Sternotherus carinatus (Gray, 1856). Sauria 17 (3): 29-33 - get paper here
  • Becker, Herbert; Müller, Andreas 1997. Bemerkenswerte Beobachtungen bei der Aufzucht der Gekielten Moschusschildkröte (Kinosternon carinatum) (Gray, 1856). Elaphe 5 (3): 10-15 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • BROWN III, GROVER J. 2021. STERNOTHERUS CARINATUS (Razor-backed Musk Turtle) and STERNOTHERUS PELTIFER (Stripe-neck Musk Turtle). HYBRIDIZATION. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 397–398. - get paper here
  • BROWN III, GROVER J. BROWN. 2021. STERNOTHERUS CARINATUS (Razor-backed Musk Turtle) and STERNOTHERUS PELTIFER (Stripe-necked Musk Turtle). BIFID TAIL. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 131–132. - get paper here
  • Brown, G J; Pearson, L S; Berry, G A; Pellecchia, C M & Lindeman, P V; 2018. Geographic Distribution: Sternotherus carinatus (Razorback Musk Turtle). Herpetological Review 49 (4): 713 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger; Berry, James F. 1978. Turtles of the family Kinosternidae in the Southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico: Identification and distribution. American Museum Novitates (2642): 1-18 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Connior, Matthew B. 2011. Geographic Distribution: Sternotherus carinatus (razor-backed musk turtle). Herpetological Review 42 (3): 390 - get paper here
  • Cornejo-Páramo, P., Lira-Noriega, A., Ramírez-Suástegui, C. et al. 2020. Sex determination systems in reptiles are related to ambient temperature but not to the level of climatic fluctuation. BMC Evol Biol 20: 103 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Ernst, Carl H.; Lovich, Jeffrey E. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 827 pp. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • FRANKLIN, CARL J.; VIVIANA RICARDEZ & SAL SCIBETTA. 2022. STERNOTHERUS CARINATUS (Razor-backed Musk Turtle). POTENTIAL MORTALITY. Herpetological Review 53(2): 313.
  • Godwin, Cody 2017. Sternotherus carinatus (Razor-backed Musk Turtle) Restraint technique. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 86-87 - get paper here
  • Godwin, Cody D. 2016. Sternotherus carinatus (Razor-backed Musk Turtle) Parasitism. Herpetological Review 47 (4): 657 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1856. Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the Collection of the British Museum. Part I. Testudinata (Tortoises). British Museum, London, 79 pp. [1855]
  • Gray,J.E. 1856. On some new species freshwater tortoises from North America, Ceylon and Australia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 18: 263-268 - get paper here
  • Hennig, A. S. 2015. Häufig gehaltene Wasserschildkrötenarten – eine Übersicht. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (116): 18-25 - get paper here
  • Hennig, A.S. 2003. Keeping and breeding the Common Musk Turtle and the Razorback Musk Turtle. Reptilia (GB) (26): 22-26 - get paper here
  • Hennig, A.S. 2004. Haltung von Wasserschildkröten. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 125 pp. - get paper here
  • Hibbitts, Troy D. and Terry L. Hibbitts 2016. Texas Turtles & Crocodilians: a Field Guide. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas. xvi + 276 pp., 117 photos, 36 maps. ISBN 978-1477307779.
  • Huntzinger, Cybil Covic, Katie Cantrelle, Eddie K. Lyons and Will Selman. 2014. Geographical Distribution: Sternotherus carinatus (razor-backed musk turtle). Herpetological Review 45 (4): 657 - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B. 1979. Sternotherus carinatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (226): 1-2 - get paper here
  • JOHNSON, AARON C.; RYAN E. GLASFORD, MACKENZIE L. MCBRIDE, AMY K. SHOOK, JOSEPH B. GRIZZLE, ASHLEY N. TRIPLETT, … JOHN L. CARR. 2021. New Distribution Records for Turtles in Northern Louisiana, USA. Herpetological Review 52 (3): 588–591. - get paper here
  • Konvalina, John D., Christopher S. Thigpen and Stanley E. Trauth. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Sternotherus carinatus (razor-backed musk turtle). Herpetological Review 46 (4): 566 - get paper here
  • Lindeman, Peter V. 1996. Distribution, relative abundance, and basking ecology of the razorback musk turtle, Kinosternon carinatum, in the Pearl and Pascagoula River Drainages. Herpetological Natural History 4 (1): 23-34
  • Liner, Ernest A. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Sternotherus carinatus. Herpetological Review 27 (3): 151 - get paper here
  • McCoy, C. J.; Oscar A. Flores-Villela, Richard C. Vogt, Michael Pappas & J. Kelly McCoy 2020. Ecology of Riverine Turtle Communities in the Southern United States: Food Resource Use and Trophic Niche Dimensions Chelonian Conservation and Biology 19 (2): 197-208 - get paper here
  • Rhoads, Samuel N. 1895. Contributions ot the zoology of Tennessee. No. 1, Amphibians and Reptiles. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1895: 376-407 - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2003. Family Kinosternidae. Reptilia (GB) (26): 16-21 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th ed. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Chicago, 280 pp. - get paper here
  • Seidel, M.E.; Iverson, J.B.; Adkins, M.D. 1986. Biochemical comparisons and phylogenetic relationships in the family Kinosternidae (Testudines). Copeia 1986 (2): 285–294 - get paper here
  • Shah, R. V. 1960. The mechanisms of carapacial and plastral hinges in Chelonians. Breviora (130): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Shively, Steve, Josh Brown and John L. Carr. 2011. Sternotherus carinatus (razor-backed musk turtle) predation. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 423 - get paper here
  • Thomson, Robert C.; Andrew M. Shedlock, Scott V. Edwards and H. Bradley Shaffer 2008. Developing markers for multilocus phylogenetics in non-model organisms: A test case with turtles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (2): 514-525 - get paper here
  • Tinkle, D.W., and R.G. Webb 1955. A new species of Sternotherus with a discussion of the Sternotherus carinatus complex (Chelonia, Kinosternidae). Tulane Stud. Zool. 3 (3): 53 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
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