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Trapelus agilis (OLIVIER, 1807)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesTrapelus agilis isolepis (BOULENGER 1885)
Trapelus agilis agilis (OLIVIER 1807)
Trapelus agilis pakistanensis RASTEGAR-POUYANI 1999
Trapelus agilis khuzistanensis RASTEGAR-POUYANI 1999 
Common NamesE: Brilliant ground agama
G: Steppenagame
Russian: прыткая агама 
SynonymAgama agilis OLIVIER 1807: 394
Agama agilis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 496
Agama agilis — ANDERSON 1872
Agama isolepis BOULENGER 1885: 342
Agama agilis — BOULENGER 1885: 341
Agama isolepis — BOULENGER 1887: 407
Agama kirmanensis NIKOLSKY 1899: 389
Agama kirmanensis var. brevicauda NIKOLSKY 1907: 272
Agama agilis — SMITH 1935: 221
Agama agilis agilis — WETTSTEIN & LÖFFLER 1951
Agama agilis — HAAS 1957: 66
Agama agilis — LEVITON 1959: 449
Agama kirmanensis — WERMUTH 1967: 16
Agama agilis — NILSON & ANDREN 1981: 134
Trapelus agilis — MACEY et al. 2000
Trapelus agilis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Laudakia kirmanensis — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013
Trapelus agilis — SHAHAMAT et al. 2020

Trapelus agilis isolepis (BOULENGER 1885)
Agama isolepis BOULENGER 1885
Agama isolepis — ALCOCK & FINN 1897: 555
Agama agilis isolepis — WETTSTEIN & LÖFFLER 1951
Agama isolepis — SHAHAMAT et al. 2020

Trapelus agilis khuzistanensis RASTEGAR-POUYANI 1999
Trapelus agilis khuzistanensis RASTEGAR-POUYANI 1999
Trapelus khuzestanensis — SHAHAMAT et al. 2020 (in error)

Trapelus agilis pakistanensis RASTEGAR-POUYANI 1999
Trapelus agilis pakistanensis — KHAN 2003
Trapelus agilis pakistanensis — ADIL et al. 2020 
DistributionIran, Pakistan, India (Rajasthan, Gujarat), Russia ?, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhsan, China,
Iraq, Afghanistan

agilis: C Iranian Plateau, S Afghanistan, and SW Pakistan; Type locality: vicinity of Baghdad, Iraq. Changed to 110 km southeast of Isfahan city, Isfahan Province, central Iranian Plateau by Rastegar-Pouyani, 1999. This change was declared as invalid by Ananjeva et al. 2013.

isolepis: Afghanistan, Iran; Type locality: “between Magas and Bampur, Iran"

khuzistanensis: SW Iran; Type locality: SW Iran, Khuzistan Province, 5 km northwest of Haft-Gel on the road to Shushtar

pakistanensis: SE Pakistan and adjacent NW India. Type locality: Gaj-River, Kirthar Range, southeastern Pakistan

kirmanensis: Iran; Type locality: Kurin in Kirmano in Persia orientali [= Kurin, Sargad Region, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran, 28.88 N 60.36 E]

brevicauda: Iran (Esfahan); Type locality: Kochrud in provincia Irak-Adschemi “Kochrud in prov. Irak-Ad-schemi” [= Kohrud or Ghohrud, Isfahan province, Iran, 33°38’ N 51°27’ E; given as 33.67 N 51.41 E by Ananjeva et al. 2020].  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 5708, and MNHN-RA 1994.1178 (formerly MNHN-RA 5708A) (2 syntypes)
Holotype: GNM 5424 (given as GNHM, Göteborg [khuzistanensis]
Holotype: SMF 63258 [pakistanensis]
Holotype: ZISP 9321, Leg: N. A. Zarudny, 21.VI.1898 [kirmanensis]
Holotype: ZISP 10335, Leg: N. A. Zarudny, 26.IV.1904 [kirmanensis var. brevicauda]
Lectotype: BMNH [isolepis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (agilis): Dorsal scales subequal, homogeneous, large scales of back grading into progressively smaller scales of flanks, no distinctly larger scales among them (but see remarks below); 1-3 rows ofcallose scales anterior to vent, more prominent in males than in females.

Color pattern: Dorsum gray or sandy, with more or less distinct dark brown or red crossbars containing a vertebral and one or two dorsolateral series of oval light spots, this pattern more distinct in females and young than in males, in which the back tends to be mottled with light-colored scales; venter cream, the throat and belly often streaked with brown, and in males with dark blue or lavender; a black patch in the shoulder fold (Anderson 1999: 101).

Diagnosis (khuzistanensis): Rastegar-Pouyani 1999: 92

Diagnosis (pakistanensis): Trapelus agilis pakistanensis differs from the other subspecies of T. agilis complex by having a combination of distinctive characters; body and head sometimes compressed (not depressed) in males; males almost always with one row of callose preanals (rarely a second undeveloped row be may present); females without callose preanals: dorsal scales relatively flat, subequal to homogeneous, distinctly keeled throughout and mucronate, grading into small dorso-laterals rather abruptly (especially in males), 67-83 around body; ventral scales also often distinctly keeled in males; body and limbs often strongly slender and head distinctly pointed (in adult males); tail often strongly compressed in adult males, its length more than 1.55 of body length; the mean number of supra-labials and infralabials significantly lower than those of the other subspecies; a rudimentary nuchal crest often present (Rastegar-Pouyani 1999: 94).

Diagnosis (agilis): Tail almost always round, two (or more) rows of callose preanal scales. Body size variable; 65-91 scales around body; dorsal scales subequal, weakly to moderately keeled, often strongly mucronate; ventral scales smooth or
weakly keeled; usually 2, sometimes 3 (rarely 4-5) rows of callose preanals; background coloration variable; central Iranian Plateau, central and southern Afghanistan, southwestern Pakistan (from the key in Rastegar-Pouyani 1999: 97). 
CommentHaas 1957 cites OLIVER 1804 as author and year.

Synonymy: partly after RASTEGAR-POUYANI 2005; Rastegar-Pouyani 1999 synonymized T. (a.) isolepis with T. agilis, but later treated T. isolepis as valid (e.g. in Shahamat et al. 2020).

Subspecies: T. a. sanguinolentus is treated here as a valid species.

Phylogenetics: Shahamat et al. 2020 found evidence for 9 species (or at least genetically different populations) of Trapelus on the Iranian plateau.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. In Russia fide Sindaco et al. 2008: map 100, but not in Russia fide Dunaev & Orlova 2017. The species in Russia is T. sanguinolentus fide Doronin (pers. comm., 21. June 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “agilis” = mobile, agile, swift. 
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