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Tretioscincus oriximinensis AVILA-PIRES, 1995

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Oriximina Lizard
Portuguese: Calango, Calango-do-Rabo-Azul, Lagartixa 
SynonymTretioscincus oriximinensis AVILA-PIRES 1995: 483
Tretioscincus oriximinensis — CASTOE et al. 2004
Tretioscincus oriximinensis — DIAGO-TORO et al. 2021 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Para, Roraima), Venezuela (Territorio Federal do Amazonas), Colombia (HR 42: 570).

Type locality: Oriximina, Pará, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MPEG 2351, female Paratypes: MPEG, MZUSP, BMNH 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Tretioscincus with prefrontals in contact or narrowly separated, loreal pentagonal and usually wider ventrally, gulars anteriorly in six, posteriorly in five longitudinal rows. Dorsals 29-32 in a middorsal row, ventrals 18-22 in a midventral row. All dorsals smooth, or posterior ones keeled. Scales on tail polygonal, keeled, i n 12 longitudinal rows. Dorsolateral stripe on third row of dorsals when counted from midline. In live animals, dorsolateral stripe tan, paler posteriorly (Avila-Pires 1995).

Description. Gymnophthalmid with maximum SVL, in both males and females from Oriximina, of 48 mm (Vanzolini & Rebougas-Spieker, 1969), in males from Venezuela 52mm (AMNH 127824, AMNH 137210), in females from Venezuela 48.5 mm (AMNH 134183). Head 0.19-0.25 (n=30)times SVL, usually 0.22-0.25 in specimens smaller than 30 mm SVL, 0.19-0.22 in larger specimens; 1.4-1.6 (1.48 ± 0.06, n= 30) times as long as wide; 1.3-1.7 (1.41 ± 0.09, n= 30) times as wide as high. Snout rounded, rising gently toward top of head. Neck about as wide as head and body. Body cylindrical. Limbs well developed, forelimbs 0.26-0.35 (0.30 ± 0.02, n= 28) times SVL, hind limbs 0.37-0.50 (0.44 ± 0.03, n= 26) times. Inner finger reduced and clawless. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip; 1.8 times SVL in three males, 1.5-1.6 times in two females, all from Venezuela.
Tongue lanceolate, covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae; tip smooth, bifid. Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth conical to bicuspid.
Rostral hexagonal, two to three times as wide as long, well visible from above, in wide contact with frontonasal. Frontonasal single, irregularly pentagonal or hexagonal, in contact with rostral, nasal, loreal (usually), prefrontals, and occasionally frontal; in holotype (MPEG 2351), a median suture is present in anterior part of frontonasal. Prefrontals variable, from separated medially by a suture between frontonasal and frontal, to forming a short, but distinct, medial suture; in B M 1971.227 one prefrontal is fused with first supraocular. Frontal distinctly longer than wide, widest anteriorly, irregularly hexagonal or heptagonal, laterally in contact with first supraocular. Frontoparietals irregularly hexagonal, longer than wide, forming a moderately long medial suture; each in contact with frontal, first and second supraoculars, one parietal, and interparietal. Interparietal roughly rhomboid, sutures with frontoparietals short and straight, with parietals and nuchals longer, blunt orrounded. One parietal at each side of interparietal, wider and shorter than it. Two supraoculars, first largest and extending beyond second toward middorsal line. Two or three supraciliaries, first highest, second shortest. Nasal undivided, nostril approximately halfway its length, close to suture with supralabials. Loreal relatively large, pentagonal, suture with supralabials usually as wide as, or wider than, sutures with fronto-nasal and prefrontal (but distinctly shorter in A M N H 137219); borders with fronto-nasal (when they are i n contact) and prefrontal tend to form a n approximately straight line. Frenocular small, continuous with a subocular series of three to five scales, among which a slightly higher presubocular (which in some specimens is fused with frenocular) and a much higher postsubocular. Postsubocular in contact with posterior supralabial, and separated from parietal by one scale which, together with another scale posterior to supraocular and supraciliary series, can be considered as postoculars. Lower eyelid with undivided semitransparent disc. Pupil round with short and wide ventral and dorsal flaps projecting inwards. Six (rarely five) supralabials, fifth (or fourth) below centre of eye, followed by two postsupralabials about as high as posterior supralabial. Temporal region with a few subhexagonal, smooth, imbricate scales, some wider posteriorly. Ear-opening relatively small, with smooth margins. Tympanum distinctly recessed within an auditory meatus.
Mental trapezoidal, convex anteriorly. Postmental undivided, irregularly heptagonal. Three pairs of chinshields, in contact medially and with infralabials. Four infralabials, suture between third and fourth, or beginning of fourth below centre of eye; they are followed by one (rarely) to three postinfralabials. Most head scales subimbricate, all smooth.
Scales on nape smooth, imbricate. Three scales border interparietal and parietals, median one rhomboid, lateral ones trapezoidal. They are followed by two paravertebral series ofscales, anteriorly trapezoidal, posteriad grading into dorsals. Laterally scales imbricate, smooth, with rounded posterior margin, larger i n dorsolateral row, smaller on sides of neck. Gulars directly in contact with posterior chinshields, smooth, imbricate, with rounded posterior margin; in approximately longitudinal rows, with a discontinuity (caused by different arrangement of scales) between anterior and posterior parts, so that anteriorly there are six rows (with two para-midventral ones), posteriorly five rows (one of which midventral); 9-11, mostly 10, scales along a medial row. Collar indistinct. Gular fold absent.
Dorsals and scales on flanks imbricate, with rounded posterior margin, in longitudinal rows with staggered scales in adjacent rows; smooth anteriorly, smooth or slightly keeled on posterior part of body; 29-32 (31.0 ± 0.9, n= 29) scales in a middorsal row between interparietal and posterior margin of hind limbs. Ventrals smooth, similar to dorsals and laterals, except for pectorals which are elongate-rhomboid; 18-22 (19.8 ± 1.0, n= 26) in a midventral row between gulars and preanals. Sixteen longitudinal rows of identical scales around midbody. Preanal plate with one median anterior scale, and three or five posterior scales; when five, lateral scale at each side may not reach cloacal slit. Pores absent in females, four to six on each side in males; preanal and femoral pores in a continuous row, the two rows (from each side) separated medially; pores in centre of one or two scales, as described for T. agilis.
Scales on tail trapezoidal along middorsal row, rhomboid to obliquely rectangular laterally, and triangular to lanceolate ventrally; imbricate, sharply keeled, mucronate, in twelve longitudinal rows, keels forming longitudinal ridges (vertebral row originates from two paravertebral rows very close to base of tail).
Scales on limbs imbricate, mostly smooth but slightly keeled on dorsal surface of hind limbs; most scales with a round posterior margin, but trapezoidal, transversely enlarged, along upper posterior aspect of forearms. Scales smallest under forelimbs, especially upper arms, and on posterior aspect of thighs, and largest under hind limbs. Subdigital lamellae single, some may be medially swollen; 13-16 (14.5 ± 0.9, n= 59, 30 specimens) under fourth finger, 16-19 (17.3 ± 0.7, n= 57, 30 specimens) under fourth toe (Avila-Pires 1995).

Colour in life: of Oriximina material was described by Vanzolini & Rebouças-Spieker (1969): "Dorsum brown, getting lighter posteriorly. In each scale the keel and a line parallel to the hind margin are lighter. One continuous light (tending to flesh-colored) line from the rostral through the canthus, the temporal edge and the sides of the body to the anterior fifth of the tail. Flanks and dorsal aspect of the limbs a deep, warm brown. Ventral parts reticulate, darker or lighter: general ground color whitish, with fine, dense punctuation in the middle of the scales, especially those adjacent to the brown area on the flank. Rosy metallic reflections on the throat, greenish elsewhere. Intact tail proximally dark brown, distally deep blue. Regenerated portions of tail a lighter blue".
Venezuelan specimens (under incandescent electric light bulb), as annotated by J. Cole, was the following: "Dorsum coppery brown; sides dark brown; dorsolateral light stripe of coppery tan extends beyond hips, although less conspicuous beyond midbody; tail brown at base but quickly becoming bright blue; chin cream with black flecks and copper iridescence (strong on lips); throat and belly light with black flecks and pale green and copper iridescence; arms and legs dark brown. Juveniles with less copper iridescence ventrally." C.W. Myers described them as "bronzy brown with tan-bordered, blackish brown lateral stripe. Tail bright blue. Venter pale green." (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in preservative: upper part of head and back brown with a greyish-blue tinge; dorsolateral light line, from rostral to base of tail, whitish or light greyish-blue, paler posteriorly; flanks dark brown. Ventrally, scales predominantly brown or dark bluish-grey, with a lighter border which forms a reticulate pattern; underside of head and chest may be lighter, or have lighter spots. Limbs dorsally similar in colour to flanks, ventrally like belly. Tail either completely brown, or near base similar to body, posteriorly blue (Avila-Pires 1995). 
Comment 
EtymologyNamed after the location (Oriximina, Para, Brazil) where the first specimen have been collected. 
References
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Castoe, T.A.; Doan, T.M. & Parkinson, C.L. 2004. Data partitions and complex models in Bayesian analysis: the phylogeny of Gymnophthalmid lizards. Systematic Biology 53 (3): 448-469 - get paper here
  • DIAGO-TORO, MARÍA F.; DANIELA GARCÍA-COBOS, GIOVANNI D. BRIGANTE-LUNA & JUAN D. VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO. 2021. Fantastic lizards and where to find them: cis-Andean microteiids (Squamata: Alopoglossidae & Gymnophthalmidae) from the Colombian Orinoquia and Amazonia. Zootaxa 5067(3): 377–400. - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Moraes LJCL, Almeida AP, Fraga R, Rojas RR, Pirani RM, Silva AAA, de Carvalho VT, Gordo M, Werneck FP 2017. Integrative overview of the herpetofauna from Serra da Mocidade, a granitic mountain range in Northern Brazil . ZooKeys 715: 103-159 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
 
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