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Trimeresurus gracilis OSHIMA, 1920

IUCN Red List - Trimeresurus gracilis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Kikuchi Habu 
SynonymTrimeresurus gracilis OSHIMA 1920
Trimeresurus gracilis — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus gracilis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 333
Trimeresurus gracilis — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Trimeresurus gracilis — ZHAO 2006
Oxyus gracilis — HOSER 2012 (preliminary)
Ovophis gracilis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 513
Trimeresurus gracilis — LI et al. 2020 

Type locality: Formosa  
TypesHolotype: unlocated, described from a single specimen but deposition not given; formerly at Institute of Science, Taiwan, according to Leviton 1968: 565. 

Synonymy: Not assigned to any genus by MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004.

The generic status of Trimeresurus gracilis Oshima, 1920 is unclear. This species probably belongs to another genus which has yet to be named (DAVID et al. 2011).

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “gracilis”, meaning small or lanky, or gracile. 
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2012. A new genus of Asian pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae). Australasian J. Herpetol. 11: 51-52 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E. 1968. The venomous terrestrial snakes of East Asia, India, Malaya and Indonesia. in Bucherl, Buckley, & Deulofeu, eds., Vol. 1: 529-576. - get paper here
  • Li, J-N., Liang, D., Wang, Y-Y., Guo, P., Huang, S., Zhang, P. 2020. A Large-scale Systematic Framework of Chinese Snakes Based on a Unified Multilocus Marker System. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mirza ZA, H. T. Lalremsanga, Bhosale H, Gowande G, Patel H, Idiatullina SS, Poyarkov NA 2023. Systematics of Trimeresurus popeiorum Smith, 1937 with a revised molecular phylogeny of Asian pitvipers of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 sensu lato. Evolutionary Systematics 7(1): 91-104 - get paper here
  • Oshima, S. 1920. Notes on the venomous snakes from the islands of Formosa and Riu Kiu. Annu. Report. Inst. Sci. Govt. Formosa, (ser. 8) 2: 1-99 - get paper here
  • TSAI, TEIN-SHUN; YING-MING WANG & INN-HO TSAI. 2022. Sequence determination and bioinformatic comparison of ten venom serine proteases of Trimeresurus gracilis, a Taiwanese endemic pitviper with controversial taxonomy. Toxicon 206: 28–37. - get paper here
  • Tu, M.-C. et al. 2000. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of the Oriental Pitvipers of the Genus Trimeresurus (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): A Molecular Perspective. Zoological Science 17: 1147–1157 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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