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Trimeresurus gramineus (SHAW, 1802)

IUCN Red List - Trimeresurus gramineus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Common Bamboo Viper
G: Grüne Bambusotter, Gewöhnliche Bambusotter 
SynonymColuber graminaeus SHAW 1802: 420
Coluber viridis BECHSTEIN 1802: 252
Vipera viridis DAUDIN 1803 (fide SMITH 1943)
Trimeresurus elegans GRAY 1853: 391 (fide STEJNEGER 1907)
Trimeresurus viridis — BEDDOME 1862 (fide SMITH 1943)
Trimeresurus gramineus — GÜNTHER 1864: 385
Trimeresurus gramineus — BOULENGER 1890: 429
Lachesis graminaeus — BOULENGER 1896: 554
Lachesis gramineus — DE ROOIJ 1917: 285
Trimeresurus occidentalis POPE & POPE 1933
Trimeresurus gramineus — SMITH 1943: 515
Trimeresurus gramineus — MENTHEY 1983
Trimeresurus gramineus — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus occidentalis — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus gramineus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 334
Trimeresurus gramineus — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Trimeresurus gramineus — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Craspedocephalus) gramineus — DAVID et al. 2011
Craspedocephalus gramineus — GUMPRECHT 2012
Craspedocephalus gramineus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 187
Craspedocephalus gramineus — GUO et al. 2018 
DistributionS India (Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra (Tung fort, Ulhas valley, Valvan, Harishchandragad fort) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.], Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Tripura)

Type locality: Vizagapatam, India (based on RUSSELL 1796)  
TypesHolotype: iconotype, based on pl. 9 ("Bodroo Pam") in Russell, 1796: 13. Paratypes: (probably) BMNH 1946.1.17.64, 1946.1.17.65, 1946.1.17.68, 1946.1.17.72, 1946.1.18.82, 1946.1.19.87 

Synonymy: STEJNEGER (1907) synonymizes Trigonocephalus erythrurus CANTOR, 1839 with Trimeresurus gramineus. Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic names Adelynhoserea Hoser 2012, Oxyus Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected their use instead of Trimeresurus.

Distribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012).

Subspecies: Trimeresurus gramineus barati and T. g. sabahi have been elevated to species status.

Distribution: Not in Pakistan fide KHAN 2002 (pers. comm.). Not listed for the Nicobars by VIJAYAKUMAR & DAVID 2006. Not in China fide VOGEL 2006. Populations previously now belonging to other species have been identified as this species, which has resulted in reports from Pakistan, Nepal, S China, Taiwan, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, Philippine Islands (fide MANTHEY 1983).

Type species: Vipera viridis Daudin, 1803 used to be considered as the type species of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804:209. T. gramineus is also the type species of Trimeresurus LACÉPÈDE 1804 sensu strictu based on a reclassification suggested by MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004. This genus would be then diagnosed by the possession of a Type 2 spinose hemipenis, and were distributed in the ‘‘Indian subcontinent’’ (including Sri Lanka), and the Indomalayan region. However, DAVID et al. 2011 designated T. insularis as type species of the genus Trimeresurus.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyStuebing & Inger (1999) state that the generic name is derived from “Tri” = three, “mere” = part, and “surus” from Greek “[o]ura” = tail (compare Urodela). The name may have been chosen by Lacépède (1804) because of the tripartite pattern of the snake’s tail. 
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