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Trimeresurus hageni (LIDTH DE JEUDE, 1886)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Indonesian Pit Viper, Hagen’s (green) pitviper
G: Hagens Bambusotter 
SynonymBothrops hageni LIDTH DE JEUDE 1886: 54
Bothrops hageni — HAGEN 1890
Lachesis hageni — LIDTH DE JEUDE 1922
Trimeresurus hageni — BRONGERSMA 1933
Trimeresurus erythrurus var. ? (nec Trigonocephalus erythrurus CANTOR 1839) — MÜLLER 1887
Lachesis sumatranus (nec Coluber sumatranus RAFFLES 1822) — BOULENGER 1896
Trimeresurus sumatranus (RAFFLES 1822) (partim) — TAYLOR 1965
Trimeresurus hageni — GRANDISON 1972: 93
Trimeresurus hageni — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus hageni — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 408
Trimeresurus hageni — COX et al. 1998: 22
Trimeresurus hageni — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 335
Parias hageni — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Parias) hageni — DAVID et al. 2011
Parias hageni — WALLACH et al. 2014: 538
Parias hageni — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 290
Parias hageni — GUO et al. 2018 
DistributionIndonesia (Batu, Bangka, Mentawai, Nias, Simalur = Simeulue, Sumatra),
W Malaysia, S Thailand

Type locality: Sumatra and the island of Banka. [= Bangka]  
TypesLectotype: RMNH 819, apparently designated by Brongersma (1933:7). Other syntypes: RMNH, 8 from Sumatra and 1 from Bangka. Brongersma (1933:7) indicated that all Sumatra specimens were from Deli (RMNH 819 (1); RMNH 5587 (6); RMNH 4985 (1)); apparently he did not examine the syntype from the island of Bangka. Golay et al. (1993: 100) listed RMNH 819, 4985, and 17191 as types; perhaps the island of Bangka specimen is RMNH 17191. 
CommentVenomous! Has been confused with T. sumatranus.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Bernhard Hagen (1853-1919), a physician, amateur natural historian and collector. He was employed by a Sumatran planting company. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel, G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • Golay,P, H.M. SMITH, D.G. BROADLEY, J. R. DIXON, C., MCCARTHY, J. C. RAGE, B. SCHÀTTI & M.TORIBA 1993. Endoglyphs and other major venomous snakes of the world. A checklist. [type catalogue] Aire-Genève, Azemiops S. A. Herpetological Data Center: i-xv + 1-478.
  • Grandison, A.G.C. 1972. The Gunong Benom Expedition 1967. 5. Reptiles and amphibians of Gunong Benom with a description of a new species of Macrocalamus. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), London, 23: 45-101. - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Gumprecht,A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Lidth DE JEUDE, T.W. VAN 1922. Snakes from Sumatra. Zoologische Mededelingen 6: 239-253. - get paper here
  • Lidth de Jeude,T. W. van 1886. Note X. On Cophias wagleri BOIE and Coluber sumatranus RAFFLES. Notes from the Leyden Museum 8: 43-54 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • PAUL, LAURENCE & ROBERT W. MENDYK. 2021. Glow and Behold: Biofluorescence and New Insights on the Tails of Pitvipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae) and Other Snakes. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 221–237. - get paper here
  • Ryabov, Sergei A., Nicolai L. Orlov, Dmitry J. Panteleev and Konstantin A. Shiryaev. 2003. Trimeresurus hageni, Trimeresurus puniceus, and Trimeresurus sumatranus (Ophidia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): The data on reproductive biology and methods of captive breeding in laboratory conditions. Russ. J. Herpetol. 9 (3): 243-254 [2002] - get paper here
  • Sommerauer, H. 1997. Erfahrungen bei der Haltung und Nachzucht von Trimeresurus hageni. Sauria 19 (4): 23-28 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Vonk, F.J. et al. 2008. Evolutionary origin and development of snake fangs. Nature 454: 630-633 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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