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Tropidolaemus philippensis (GRAY, 1842)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: South Philippine temple pitviper
G: Südphilippinische Tempelviper 
SynonymTrimeresurus philippensis GRAY 1842: 48
Trimeresurus hombroni JACQUINOT & GUICHENOT 1848
Tropidolaemus philippinensis — PETERS 1861 (unjustified emendation)
Trimeresurus hombroni — BOETTGER 1886
Trimeresurus philippensis — TAYLOR 1922
Trimeresurus philippensis — MASLIN 1942
Tropidolaemus philippinensis — VOGEL et al. 2007
Tropidolaemus philippensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 748 
DistributionPhilippines (W Mindanao)

Type locality: “The Philippines”  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.1.17.67 (female). Coll. by H. Cuming (specimen listed as Tropidolaemus wagleri in BMNH catalog) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the genus Tropidolaemus, characterized by (1) the internasals separated by 1 or 2 scales; (2) only 6–7 cephalic scales between the middle of the supraoculars at both sexes; (3) 18–19 MSR in both sexes, smooth or weakly keeled; (4) 7–8 SL on each side, or a total number of 15–16 supralabials in both sexes; (5) 0, rarely 1 scale, between 3rd SL and subocular in both sexes; (6) 4–5 scales on the snout in both sexes; (7) a total number of 16–17 infralabials in both sexes; (8) a greenish-turquoise body background coloration in males, seemingly more green in females; (9) dorsal blotches on the body, black with unfilled dorsals so some kind of net is visible; (10) a black or rarely white postocular stripe in both sexes; (11) belly uniform in both sexes; (12) VEN: 131–135 in males and 129 in the sole available preserved female specimen, SC: 45–46 in males and 44 in a female; (13) tail moderate in males and females, with a ratio TaL/TL between 0.143 and 0.155, without sexual dimorphism; (14) occipital scales weekly keeled in males and strongly keeled, like partly raised in females (from VOGEL et al. 2007). 

Trimeresurus philippensis (Gray, 1842) was synonymised with Lachesis wagleri by Boulenger (1896: 562). Trimeresurus philippensis was placed in the synonymy of Tropidolaemus wagleri by Leviton (1964).

Habitat: not arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Boettger, O. 1886. Aufzählung der von den Philippinen bekannten Reptilien und Batrachier. Ber. senckenb. naturf. Ges., Frankfurt am Main, 1886: 91-134 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1842. Synopsis of the species of Rattle snakes, or Family of Crotalidae. Zoological Miscellany 2: 47- 51. - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Jacquinot, H. & Guichenot, A. 1853. Reptiles et poissons. In: HOMBRON & JACQUINOT, Zoologie 3, in: Dumont d’Urville, Voyage au Pole Sud et dans l’Océanie sur les corvettes l’Astrolabe et la Zélée, ... Gide & J. Baudry, Paris, 56 pp. [According to Sherborn & Woodward (1901), the text is dated as 1846-1854; but Plate 2 of the Sauriens appeared in 1842 fide Clark & Crosnier 2000] - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E., R.M. Brown, and C.D. Siler. 2014. The dangerously venomous snakes of the Philippine Archipelago. in The Coral Triangle: The 2011 Hearst Biodiversity Philippine Expedition (G.C. Williams and T.M. Gosliner, eds.). California Academy of Sciences, USA, Pp 473–530
  • Maslin, T. Paul 1942. Evidence for the separation of the crotalid genera Trimeresurus and Bothrops, with a key to the genus Trimeresurus. Copeia 1942 (1): 18-24 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1861. Eine zweite Übersicht (vergl. Monatsberichte 1859 p. 269) der von Hrn. F. Jagor auf Malacca, Java, Borneo und den Philippinen gesammelten und dem Kgl. zoologischen Museum übersandten Schlangen. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1861 (Juli): 683-691 [1862 on title page] - get paper here
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1922. The snakes of the Philippine Islands. Manila (Bureau of Printing or Science), Monograph 16: 312 pp. - get paper here
  • Vogel, G.; David, P.; Lutz, M.; van Rooijen, J. & Vidal, N. 2007. Revision of the Tropidolaemus wagleri-complex (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). I. Definition of included taxa and redescription of Tropidolaemus wagleri (Boie, 1827). Zootaxa 1644: 1–40 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L.; Errol Hooper, Alan E. Leviton, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Illustrated Key to the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 66 (1): 1-49 - get paper here
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