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Tropidophis canus (COPE, 1868)

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Higher TaxaTropidophiidae, Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Inagua Trope, Bahama-Wood Snakes
G: Bahama-Zwerg-Boa 
SynonymUngalia cana COPE 1868:129
Ungalia cana — BOULENGER 1893: 114
Tropidophis cana — STEJNEGER in SHATTUCK 1905
Tropidophis canus canus — SCHWARTZ & MARSH 1960
Tropidophis canus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 630
Tropidophis canus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 216
Tropidophis canus — POWELL & HENDERSON 2012
Tropidophis canus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 752 
DistributionBahamas (Great Inagua Island)

Type locality: Great Inagua Island, Bahama Islands.  
Reproductionviviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: USNM 7111, USNM 26763 etc. 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION (including androsi, barbouri, curtus): Maximum total length 408 mm; dorsal scale rows at midbody 23 or 25; dorsal scales keeled or smooth; supralabials 9/9 or 10/10; infralabials 9/9 to 12/12; ventrals 146-191; subcaudals 22-37; parietal contact usually absent; postoculars 2/2, 3/3, or rarely 2/3. Occipital spots absent; dark line extending from posterior margin of eye posteriorly for variable distance along 7th or 8th scale row, gradually fragmenting to form second row of dorsal longitudinal spots; dorsal ground color tan, gray, yellow-brown to pinkish brown to brown; rows of body blotches* usually 10, but sometimes 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, or 12; dorsal spotst 38-90, dark brown to charcoal; ventral ground color orange, yellow-pink, and cream; venter with paired blotches; tail tip usually dark (bright yellow in juveniles); marked ontogenetic pattern change: juveniles heavily and profusely spotted with dark gray to brown blotches on paler ground, spots becoming increasingly less prominent with age, adults of both sexes often only faintly spotted or completely unicolor tan to brown (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 630). 
CommentIllustrations: Schwartz and Marsh, 1960; Greene and Burghardt, 1978; Mehrtens, 1987.

Synonymy: partly after WALLACH et al. 2014.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
References
  • Bailey, J. R. 1937. A review of some recent Tropidophis material. Proc. New England Zool. Club 16: 41-52.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the Orton Expedition to Equador and the Upper Amazon, with notes on other species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 96-140 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Greene, H.W. and Burghardt, G.M. 1978. Behavior and phylogeny: constriction in ancient and modem snakes. Science 200:74-77. - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. 2002. Morphological variation and the definition of species in the snake genus Tropidophis (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae). Bull. nat. Hist. Mus. London (Zool.) 68 (2): 83-90 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Rabb, George B.;Hayden, Ellis B. 1957. The Van Voast-American Museum of Natural History Bahama Islands Expedition record of the expedition and general features of the Islands. American Museum Novitates (1836): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A.and Marsh, R.J. 1960. A review of the pardalis-maculatus complex of the boid genus Tropidophis of the West Indies. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 123 (2):49-84. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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