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Urostrophus vautieri DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837

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Higher TaxaLeiosauridae (Enyaliinae), Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Brazilian Steppe Iguana
Portuguese: Camaleãozinho, Iguana-Rajada, Papa-Vento, Papa-Vento-de-Barriga-Listrada 
SynonymUrostrophus Vautieri DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 78
Laemanctus (Urostrophus) vautieri — FITZINGER 1843 (part.)
Leiosaurus vautieri — REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 223
Urostrophus vautieri — BOULENGER 1885: 123
Urostrophus Vautieri — BOULENGER 1886: 426
Urostrophus vautieri — PETERS et al. 1970: 276
Urostrophus vautieri — POE 2004 
DistributionS Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Paraná)

Type locality: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (fide GUIBÉ 1954).  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 6779 and MNHN-RA 6780 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Urostrophus is an iguanian lizard of the family Polychridae diagnosed by the acquisition of endolymphatic sacs that extend back between the supraoccipital and parietal bones into the dorsal neck musculature, and other synapomorphies (Frost and Etheridge, 1989). Urostrophus differs from Polychrus in having lost femoral pores, from the leiosaurs (Enyalius, Pristidactylus, Diplolaemus, Leiosaurus, Aperopristis) in having reduced the number of sternal rib pairs from four to three and in lacking longitudinally divided distal subdigital scales, and from the anoles (Anolis, Chamaeolis, Phenacosaurus, Chamaelinorops) in having acquired a small posterior coracoid fenestra and in lacking elongate second ceratobranchials and the anole type digital pad. Urostrophus differs from Anisolepis (including Aptycholaemus, see below) in having smooth ventral scales, and posterior marginal tooth crowns with straight sides and moderate secondary cusps. The characters that distinguish Urostrophus from Anisolepis may be primitive, and the genus may be paraphyletic. [from Etheridge & Williams 1991]. 
CommentDistribution: not in Argentina fide AVILA et al. 2010, Lista de las lagartijas y anfisbaenas de Argentina. See ETHERIDGE & WILLIAMS 1991 for a map. Not in Paraguay fide Souza-Filho 2011 (and fide Cacciali et al. 2016).

Type species: Urostrophus Vautieri DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837 is the type species of the genus Urostrophus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837. 
EtymologyThe species was named for L. L. Vautier, collector of one of the syntypes.

The genus was named after the Greek words oura meaning tail and strophos meaning a twisted cord, in allusion to the prehensile tail in this genus. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Bruscagin, R. T., M. Dixo, S. Famelli & J. Bertoluci 2017. Patch size effects on richness, abundance, and diversity of leaf-litter lizards from Atlantic rainforest fragments. Salamandra 53 (1): 59-65 - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique C. 2022. Clarifying the type locality of Liotyphlops wilderi (Garman, 1883)(Serpentes, Anomalepididae), with comments on other reptiles from São Cyriaco, Minas Gerais. Zoosystematics and Evolution 98 (1): 129-136
  • Costa-Santos, Rodrigo; Priscila Silva Lucas Bernadete Maria de Sousa; Iara Alves Novelli 2009. Reptilia, Squamata, Leiosauridae, Urostrophus vautieri: Distribution extension and geographic distribution map. Check List 5 (3): 533–536 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R; Williams E E 1991. A review of the South American lizard genera Urostrophus and Anisolepis (Squamata: Iguania: Polychridae). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool Harvard 152(5) 1991: 317-361 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Gallardo, José M. 1969. Las especies de saurios (Reptilia) de la Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, y consideraciones sobre su ecologia y zoogeografia. Neotropica 15 (47): 73-81
  • Gallardo,J.M. 1964. Los generos "Urostrophus" D. et B. y "Cupriguanus" gen. nov. (Sauria, Iguanidae) y sus especies. Neotropica, Buenos Aires 10 (33): 125-136
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Guibé, J. 1954. Catalogue des Types de Lézards du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Naturelle. Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 119 pp.
  • Hudson, A A; Silva, M A; Honório, N R & Sousa, B M; 2019. Urostrophus vautieri (Brazilian Steppe Iguana) Defensive behavior, predation, and reproduction. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 582-583 - get paper here
  • Linares, Antônio Meira and Paula Cabral Eterovick 2013. Herpetofaunal Surveys Support Successful Reconciliation Ecology in Secondary and Human-Modified Habitats at the Inhotim Institute, Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 69 (2): 237-256. - get paper here
  • Novelli, Iara Alves, Glenda Fernanda Morton and Fabiano Matos Vieira. 2014. Urostrophus vautieri (Brazilian Steppe iguana) endoparasites. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 335 - get paper here
  • Novelli, Iara Alves, Glenda Fernanda Morton, Israel Tadeu Trindade and Fernando Antonio Frieiro-Costa. 2013. Urostrophus vautieri (Brazilian steppe iguana) diet. Herpetological Review 44 (3): 516 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Reinhardt, J., and C. Lütken 1862. Bidrag til Kundskab om Brasiliens Padder og Krybdyr. Förste Afdeling Paddern og Oglerne. Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kjobenhavn 1861: 143-242. - get paper here
  • Silva-Lucas, Priscila; Iara Alves Novelli, Bernadete Maria de Sousa 2016. Assemblage of squamate reptiles in a natural remnant of Cerrado in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Check List 12 (2): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Souza Filho, G.A. 2011. Urostrophus vautieri Duméril and Bibron, 1837 (Reptilia: Squamata: Sauria: Leiosauridae): Distribution extension, Paraná, Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 876-877 - get paper here
  • Souza Filho, Gilberto Alves de; Fernanda Stender de Oliveira 2015. Squamate reptiles from Mauá Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Check List 11 (6): 1800 - get paper here
  • Vieira, F.M., Leite, I.H.F., Novelli, I.A., Sousa, B.M., Lima, S.d.S. & Muniz-Pereira, L.C. 2017. Urostrophus vautieri (Brazilian Steppe Iguana) Endoparasites. Herpetological Review 48 (3): 663-664. - get paper here
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
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