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Xenoxybelis argenteus (DAUDIN, 1803)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Striped Sharpnose Snake
Portuguese: Bicuda, Cobra-Cipó, Tucanaboia 
SynonymColuber argenteus LINNAEUS 1758
Coluber argenteus DAUDIN 1803: 336
Oxybelis argenteus — DUMÉRIL 1853: 487
Oxybelis argenteus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 815
Oxybelis argenteus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 227
Oxybelis argenteus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Oxybelis argenteus— DO NASCIMENTO et al. 1987
Oxybelis argenteus — HOOGMOED & AVILA-PIRES 1991: 85
Xenoxybelis argenteus — MACHADO 1993
Oxybelis argenteus — STARACE 1998: 293
Oxybelis argenteus — KORNACKER 1999: 118
Xenoxybelis argenteus — VIDAL et al. 2000
Oxybelis argenteus — LEHR 2002: 205
Xenoxybelis argenteus — CLAESSEN 2005
Philodryas argentea — ZAHER et al. 2009
Oxybelis argenteus — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Philodryas argenteus — HAMDAN et al. 2012
Philodryas argentea — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Philodryas argentea — WALLACH et al. 2014: 549
Philodryas argentea — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Xenoxybelis argenteus — ARREDONDO et al. 2020
Xenoxybelis argenteus — MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020 
DistributionColombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil (Pará), Peru (Tambopata, Madre de Dios: [HR 31: 188]), Guyana, Bolivia, French Guiana

Type locality: unknown (fide KORNACKER 1999).  
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.9.86 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Xenoxybelis can be diagnosed by a unique combination of the following characters: mid-dorsal scales smooth in 17 rows (with posterior reduction) without apical pits; head presenting snout complex frontally projected and eyes laterally displaced, resulting in complete stereoscopic vision*; body elongation with 189-207 ventrals and 174-209 subcaudals in both sexes; dorsal surface of body with conspicuous dorsolateral stripes originating at the snout, passing by the eye and extending to the tail*; ventral surface of body with midline or paired ventral stripes*; maxillae with 17-21 subequal teeth followed by a diastema with 2-3 enlarged and grooved teeth*; dorsal surface of tongue with conspicuous dorsolateral stripes*; hemipenes bilobed and semicapitated with semicentrifugal orientation of the sulcus spermaticus; hemipenes with large spines on its proximal region and with distal spinulated calyces on the sulcate side of capitulum, while asulcate side is mostly naked with a median papillate crest between two rows of body calyces, and two rows of lateral large spines (Procter 1924; Machado 1993; Prudente et al. 2008, Melo-Sampaio et al. 2020).

Diagnosis: Xenoxybelis can be distinguished from the other genera of Philodryadini by the following combination of characters: markedly elongated snout, forming an acuminated and sharp head shape; large number of prediastemal maxillary teeth (16-21), followed by one or two grooved postdiastemal teeth; short heart-shaped hemipenes with a well-defined papillate longitudinal crest, formed by the confluence of the body calyces, that runs medially in the asulcate surface; lateral surfaces of hemipenes covered with two to four rows of well-developed enlarged lateral spines (Fig. 4) (ARREDONDO et al. 2020). 
CommentSynonymy: Oxybelis boulengeri PROCTER 1923 has been removed from the synonymy of X. argenteus by KEISER 1989.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018), but semi-arboreal according to other sources.

Distribution: Not in Paraguay (fide Cacciali et al. 2016). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

Type species: Coluber argenteus LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Xenoxybelis Machado 1993. Note that Arredondo et al. 2020 and Melo-Sampaio et al. 2020 revalidated Xenoxybelis almost at the same time. However, the former was published on 20 Oct 2020 while the latter was published 2 weeks later on 4 Nov 2020. 
EtymologyEtymology: The generic name of the South American Vine snake Xenoxybelis is formed by the Greek words Xenos‐ (adjective, ξένος, meaning “different”), ‐oxy‐ (ad- jective, οξύς, meaning “sharp”), and ‐belos (noun, βέλος, meaning “dart”), in reference to their external similarity with the unrelated Neotropical Vine snake genus Oxybelis Wagler, 1830 (Arredondo et al. 2020).
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