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Acanthodactylus busacki SALVADOR, 1982

IUCN Red List - Acanthodactylus busacki - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Eremiadinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Busack's Fringe-fingered Lizard 
SynonymAcanthodactylus busacki SALVADOR 1982: 88
Acanthodactylus pardalis bedriagai — ARNOLD 1983: 319 (part.)
Acanthodactylus bedriagai — HARRIS & ARNOLD 2000: 352 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — MELLADO & DAKKI 1988: 175 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — MELLADO & OLMEDO 1990: 133 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — BONS & GENIEZ 1996: 162 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — SCHLEICH et al. 1996: 391 (part.)
Acanthodactylus bedriagai — HARRIS & ARNOLD 2000: 352 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — DONAIRE et al. 2000: 10
Acanthodactylus busacki — GENIEZ et al. 2004: 102 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — BRITO et al. 2008: 21 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008: 218 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — FONSECA et al. 2008: 9 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — GENIEZ et al. 2010: IUCN red list (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — HARRIS el al. 2010: 22 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — CARRETERO et al. 2011: 139 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — TRAPE et al. 2012: 302 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — PYRON et al. 2013: 17 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — CROCHET et al. 2015: 584
Acanthodactylus busacki — TAMAR et al. 2016: 8 (part.)
Acanthodactylus busacki — TAMAR et al. 2017 
DistributionSW Morocco, N Western Sahara

Type locality: 30 km south of Goulimine, Morocco  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1970.250, adult male; paratypes: ZMH, ZFMK, BMNH, FMNH, CM, CAS, MNHP, EBD 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the pardalis species-group (i.e., small flat or carinated dorsal scales; three series of scales on the fingers; three supraoculars; 12 and sometimes 14 straight longitudinal row of ventrals; slightly pectinate toes; body pattern combining longitudinal rows of light ocelli and black reticulation) characterized by the combination of the following characters: (1) maximum recorded SVL 73 mm (51–73 mm in adult males); (2) three supraoculars, the first supraocular is either entire or fragmented with usually one row of granules between the supraoculars and the superciliaries; (3) 13–27 granules around the supraoculars; (4) subocular with a distinct keel located between the fourth and fifth upper labials and not contacting the lip; (5) upper temporals small and pointed whereas the lower temporals are large and smooth; (6) 8–11 collar scales; (7) 12 longitudinal rows of ventral scales; (8) 29–34 transverse rows of ventral scales; (9) 20–26 femoral pores on each side; (10) three rows of scales on fingers with slight lateral pectination, with 16–23 lamellae underneath the fourth toe; (11) dorsal scales are pointed and smooth; (12) dorsal colour pattern of juveniles, females and sub-adult males consists of two lateral longitudinal lines of pale ocelli on each side with strong black reticulation among them (four longitudinal dorsal lines in total), adult males have intricate colouration of black reticulation that covers most of the dorsal area and the rows of pale ocelli become indistinct or may completely disappear; (13) the males exhibit a unique colouration: the neck, the posterior part of the throat, the anterior parts of the body and belly, and the forelimbs are more or less reddish; this tint becoming progressively yellowish, whitish or slightly bluish at the posterior parts and tail; (14) sub-adults have reddish or white ventral tail colour. 
CommentSimilar species: Has been confused with A. erythrurus and A. lineomaculatus.

Distribution: Not in Mauritania, Algeria fide SINDACO & JEREMCENKO 2008. See map in Tamar et al. 2017: Fig. 1. 
EtymologyNamed after Stephen D. Busack (1944-), American herpetologist. See Busack 2018 for biographical details. 
  • Arnold E.N. 1983. Osteology, genitalia and the relationships of Acanthodactylus (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 44: 291–339 - get paper here
  • Barata, Mafalda; Ana Perera, D. James Harris, Arie van der Meijden, Salvador Carranza, Francisco Ceacero, Enrique García-Muñoz, Duarte Gonçalves, Sérgio Henriques, Fátima Jorge, Jonathan C. Marshall, Luis Pedrajas and Pedro Sousa 2011. New observations of amphibians and reptiles in Morocco, with a special emphasis on the eastern region. Herpetological Bulletin (116): 4 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • BOUAZZA, ABDELLAH; EL HASSAN EL MOUDEN & ABDESLAM RIHANE 2021. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Morocco: A taxonomic update and standard Arabic names. Herpetology Notes 14: 1-14. - get paper here
  • Busack, Stephen D. 2018. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF STEPHEN D. BUSACK. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (154): 1-38 - get paper here
  • Crochet, Pierre Andre; Raphael Leblois, Julien Pierre Renoult 2015. New reptile records from Morocco and Western Sahara. Herpetology Notes 8: 583-588 - get paper here
  • Fonseca, Miguel M.; José C. Brito, Hugo Rebelo, Mohsen Kalboussi, Saïd Larbes, Miguel A. Carretero, and D. James Harris 2008. Genetic variation among spiny-footed lizards in the Acanthodactylus pardalis group from North Africa. African Zoology 43 (1): 8-15 - get paper here
  • Geniez, P.; Mateo, J.A.; Geniez, M. & Pether, J. 2004. The amphibians and reptiles of the Western Sahara (former Spanish Sahara) and adjacent regions. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 228 pp. [reviewed in Reptilia GB 44: 81]
  • Harris,D.J. & Arnold,E.N. 2000. Elucidation of the relationships of spiny-footed lizards, Acanthodactylus ssp. (Reptilia: Lacertidae) using mitochondrial DNA sequence, with comments of their biogeography and evolution. Journal of Zoology 252: 351-362 - get paper here
  • Martínez del Mármol, Gabriel; D. James Harris, Philippe Geniez, Philip de Pous, and Daniele Salvi 2019. Amphibians and Reptiles of Morocco. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 478 pp - get paper here
  • Mellado,J. & Olmedo,G. 1990. El género Acanthodactylus en Marruecos: problemas de identificación en los grupos de especies A. pardalis y A. scutellatus. Amphibia-Reptilia 11: 131-146 - get paper here
  • Padial, J. M. 2006. COMMENTED DISTRIBUTIONAL LIST OF THE REPTILES OF MAURITANIA (WEST AFRICA). Graellsia, 62(2): 159-178 - get paper here
  • Salvador, A 1982. A revision of the lizards of the genus Acanthodactylus (Sauria: Lacertidae). Bonner Zool. Monogr. (16): 1-167 - get paper here
  • Schleich, H.H., Kästle,W., Kabisch, K. 1996. Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa. Koeltz, Koenigstein, 627 pp.
  • Schlüter, U. 2002. Die Fransenfingereidechsen (Acanthodactylus) Nordafrikas. Draco 3 (2): 58-65 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2002. Zur Kenntnis von Busacks Fransenfinger (Acanthodactylus busacki SALVADOR 1982). Elaphe 10 (4): 58-61
  • Schlüter, U. 2007. Fransenfingereidechsen (Acanthodactylus) in der Natur und im Terrarium. Teil 2: Gundlagen der Terrarienhaltung und Reproduktionsbiologie. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (67): 56-65 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2007. Fransenfingereidechsen (Acanthodactylus) in der Natur und im Terrarium. Teil 1: Allgemeines zur Ökologie und Verhalten. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 68-76 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2009. Fransenfingereidechsen (Acanthodactylus) in der Natur und im Terrarium. Teil 4: Die Acanthodactylus-pardalis-Gruppe. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (76): 52-60 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • TAMAR, KARIN; PHILIPPE GENIEZ, JOSÉ C. BRITO, PIERRE-ANDRÉ CROCHET 2017. Systematic revision of Acanthodactylus busacki (Squamata: Lacertidae) with a description of a new species from Morocco. Zootaxa 4276 (3): 357–386 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F.; Trape, S. & Chirio, L. 2012. Lézards, crocodiles et tortues d'Afrique occidentale et du Sahara. IRD Orstom, 503 pp. - get paper here
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