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Acanthodactylus erythrurus (SCHINZ, 1833)

IUCN Red List - Acanthodactylus erythrurus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Eremiadinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAcanthodactylus erythrurus atlanticus BOULENGER 1918
Acanthodactylus erythrurus belli GRAY 1845
Acanthodactylus erythrurus erythrurus (SCHINZ 1833)
Acanthodactylus erythrurus lineomaculatus (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839) 
Common NamesE: Fringe-fingered Lizard
G: Europäischer Fransenfinger
D: Roodstaartfransjenhagedis 
SynonymLacerta erythrura SCHINZ 1833: 102
Acanthodactylus vulgaris DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 268
Acanthodactylus vulgaris — BOULENGER 1878: 195
Acanthodactylus vulgaris — BOULENGER 1891: 132
Acanthodactylus vulgaris — BOULENGER 1918
Acanthodactylus erythrurus — MERTENS 1929
Acanthodactylus vulgaris — WERNER 1931
Acanthodactylus vulgaris — BELLAIRS & SHUTE 1954
Acanthodactylus erythrurus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Acanthodactylus erythrurus — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 384
Acanthodactylus erythrurus — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020

Acanthodactylus erythrurus belli GRAY 1845
Acanthodactylus Bellii GRAY 1845: 36
Acanthodactylus erythrurus bellii — PAPENFUSS 1969: 295
Acanthodactylus erythrurus belli — SALVADOR 1982: 64
Acanthodactylus erythrurus ksourensis DOUMERGUE 1901: 187
Acanthodactylus erythrurus mauritanicus DOUMERGUE 1901: 187
Acanthodactylus erythrurus belli — BONS 1959
Acanthodactylus erythrurus belli — FONSECA et al. 2009

Acanthodactylus erythrurus atlanticus BOULENGER 1918
Acanthodactylus vulgaris var. atlantica BOULENGER 1918
Acanthodactylus erythrurus atlanticus — BISCHOFF 2007
Acanthodactylus erythrurus atlanticus — FONSECA et al. 2009

Acanthodactylus erythrurus lineomaculatus (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839)
Acanthodactylus lineo-maculatus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 276
Acanthodactylus vulgaris lineomaculatus — HEDIGER 1935
Acanthodactylus erythrurus lineomaculatus —SALVADOR 1982: 63
Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus — BONS & GENIEZ 1995
Acanthodactylus erythrurus tingitanus (fide SALVADOR 1982)
Acanthodactylus erythrurus lineomaculatus — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 386
Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus — HARRIS & ARNOLD 2000
Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Acanthodactylus erythrurus lineomaculatus — BARATA et al. 2011
Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus — GIOVANNOTTI et al. 2017
Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus — MOUHAJIR et al. 2019 
DistributionPortugal, Spain, Gibraltar, NW Morocco, N Algeria

atlanticus: Distribution (Fig. 7): Morocco only; Middle Atlas including the Central Plateau, northern slopes of the High Atlas, plains to the north and west of the Atlases, with the exception of an Atlantic coastal fringe.

belli: NE Morocco and Algeria.; Type locality: “Algiers”;

erythrurus: The southern two-thirds of the IberianPeninsula, extending northwards along the Mediterranean coast as far as the environs of Gerona. Type locality: “Spanien”

lineomaculatus: W/S Morocco; Type locality: "Mogador".  
TypesHolotype: unlocated (SALVADOR 1982: 57)
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.9.3.8-11 [belli]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.9.2.72-73 [atlanticus]
Syntypes: MNHN-RA 5912 (by monotypy; fide Brygoo 1988 in type catalogue Lacertidae, but unlocated by SALVADOR 1982: 63. Boulenger 1921 mentioned 10 syntypes in MNHN) [lineomaculatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (erythrurus): Smooth dorsal scales (or weakly keeled on rear of back), rounded snout, barely concave frontal, entire internasal, usually no interprefrontal granules (exceptionally one), 1st supraocular generally fragmented into fewer than six scales on both sides (sometimes into six scales on both sides), subocular usually in contact with lip (sometimes it is separated from the lip by the 4th and 5th labials that are joined in this case) (from BONS & GENIEZ 1995). 
CommentSyonymy partly after SCHLEICH et al. (1996) and SALVADOR 1982. Genetically, A. lineomaculatus is nested within A. erythrurus. Further analysis may thus reveal that it is synonymous to the latter species (HARRIS et al. 2004). Recent molecular analyses do not support the specific differentiation of A. e. lineomaculatus and A. e. belli, indicating that both morphotypes are probably ecotypical adaptations to different habitats (Fonseca et al., 2009). Acanthodactylus lineomaculatus has been synonymized with A. erythrurus by TAMAR et al. 2016, confirming that this species nests withing erythrurus in molecular data. Boulenger 1881: 742 thought that A. e. bellii is a juvenile A. vulgaris.

Distribution: some mountain populations of A. erythrurus were split off as A. lacrymae and A. montanus by Miralles et al. 2020. See map in Miralles et al. 2020: 321 (Fig. 10).

NCBI taxonID: 282410 [lineomaculatus]

Karyotype: 2n = 38

Type species: Lacerta erythrura SCHINZ 1833: 102 is the type species of the genus Acanthodactylus SCHINZ 1833.

Reproduction: viviparous. 
EtymologyNamed after Greek erythros = red, reddish, presumably for the sometimes reddish looking skin in some specimens. 
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