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Acanthodactylus orientalis ANGEL, 1936

IUCN Red List - Acanthodactylus orientalis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Eremiadinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAcanthodactylus tristrami orientalis ANGEL 1936: 109
Acanthodactylus tristrami iracensis SCHMIDT 1939
Acanthodactylus tristrami orientalis — SCHMIDT 1939
Acanthodactylus tristrami tristrami — HAAS & WERNER 1969
Acanthodactylus tristrami tristrami — SALVADOR 1982: 104
Acanthodactylus tristrami iracensis — SALVADOR 1982: 106
Acanthodactylus orientalis — ARNOLD 1986
Acanthodactylus orientalis— HARRIS & ARNOLD 2000
Acanthodactylus orientalis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Acanthodactylus orientalis — MOHAMMED et al. 2017 
DistributionE Syria, W/C Iraq, N Saudi Arabia

Type locality: Palmyre, Tell Abiad, Ain Zahra, Deir Ez Zor

iracensis: Iraq; Type locality: Haditha, Iraq.  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 1935.231-5 (Palmyre), 1935.236 (Tell Abiad), 1935.237 (Ain Zahra), 1935.238 (Deir Ez Zor) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Habitus robust; 2 supraoculars; one row of granules between supraoculars and superciliaries; eyelids without pectination; large ear opening without anterior pectination; temporals granular and without keels; subocular in contact with upper lip; 4 supralabials anterior to subocular; dorsals flat, without keels, 42-50 across middle of back; ventrals in 10 straight longitudinal rows; 3 series of scales around fingers; toes pectinate; scales on upper side of tail flat, medium-sized, smooth and imbricate. (Salvador, 1982:101, 106 for A. t. iracensis.) (Leviton et la. 1992). 
CommentSynonymy: listed as synonym of Acanthodactylus tristrami tristrami by SALVADOR 1982.

Distribution: listed as questionable/possible for Jordan by DISI et al. 2001.

Salvador diagnoses tristrami from the then subspecies irancensis as follows:

Diagnosis (tristrami): Relatively large subspecies with snout—vent length ranging from 60 to 90mm. Wide head and short snout. Small dorsal scales numbering from 52 to 64 across the middle of the body. Toes unpectinate (Salvador 1982: 104).

Diagnosis (iracensis): Small subspecies with snout—vent length ranging from 50 to 57mm. Relatively large dorsals numbering 42 to 50 across the middle of the body. Pectination of the toes more developed than in A. t. tristrami.

Color pattern. There are white spots around the ear opening, on the cheeks, and under the eye. There is both a supraciliary and a subocular row of white spots circled in black which extend into the tail (Salvador 1982: 106). 
  • Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K., Bilal Ahmad Paray, Hamad S. Al-Otaibi 2016. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.04.005 - get paper here
  • Angel, F. 1936. Reptiles et batraciens de Syrie et de Mésopotamie récoltés (part.) M.P. Pallary. Bull. Inst. Egypte 18: 107-116
  • Haas G. and Werner, Y. L. 1969. Lizards and snakes from Southwestern Asia, collected by Henry Field. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138: 327-406. - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E.; Anderson,S.C.; Adler, K.; Minton,S.A. 1992. Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles. SSAR, Oxford, Ohio (Contr. to Herpetol. No. 8), 1-252
  • Mohammed, Rihab Ghaleb; Fadhel Aabbas Rhadi, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Seyyed Saeed Hosseinian Yousefkhani 2017. Zoogeography of Lizards Fauna from Central and Southern Iraq with a Checklist of Iraqi Lizard’s Fauna. Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (3): 193-201 - get paper here
  • Riney, T. 1953. Notes on the Syrian lizard Acanthodactylus tristrami orientalis. Copeia 1953 (1): 66-67. - get paper here
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1939. Reptiles and amphibians from Southwestern Asia. Publ. Field Mus. nat. Hist., zool. Ser., 24: 49-92 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R.; Serra, G. & Menegon, M. 2006. New data on the Syrian herpetofauna with a newly-recorded species of snake. Zoology of the Middle-East 37: 29-38 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Riccardo Nincheri, Benedetto Lanza 2014. Catalogue of Arabian reptiles in the collections of the “La Specola” Museum, Florence. Scripta Herpetologica. Studies on Amphibians and Reptiles in honour of Benedetto Lanza: pp. 137-164 - get paper here
  • van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.; Donato L. Ph. Ballasina, John T. Dekker, Jolanda Maas, Ronald E. Willemsen and Jaap Goudsmit 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships among the Species of the Genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 174-183 - get paper here
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