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Acanthodactylus pardalis (LICHTENSTEIN, 1823)

IUCN Red List - Acanthodactylus pardalis - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Eremiadinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Egyptian Fringe-fingered Lizard
G: Ägyptischer Pantherfransenfinger, Ägyptischer Leopardfransenfinger 
SynonymLacerta pardalis LICHTENSTEIN 1823
Lacerta deserti MILNE-EDWARDS 1829
Zootoca deserti — GÜNTHER 1859
Acanthodactylus pardalis — BOULENGER 1887
Acanthodactylus pardalis — BOULENGER 1918
Acanthodactylus pardalis deserti — WERNER 1931
Acanthodactylus pardalis — SALVADOR 1982: 80
Acanthodactylus pardalis — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 388
Acanthodactylus pardalis— HARRIS & ARNOLD 2000
Acanthodactylus pardalis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008 
DistributionAlgeria, NW Libya, N Egypt, Jordan

Type locality: “Aegyptus”  
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 1072-1077 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Medium or large robust body. Snout slightly pointed upwards. Three entire supraoculars and one, the fourth, divided into granules. One or two rows of granules between the supraoculars and the superciliaries. Three series of scales on fingers. Subocular not in contact with upper lip. Four supralabials anterior to the subocular. Unkeeled temporals. Anterior border of ear opening denticulate.
Tympanic scale small or totally absent. Flat medium-sized dorsals. Ventrals arranged in 12 straight longitudinal rows. Slightly pectinate fourth toe with uni or tricarinate subdigital lamellae. Scales on the upper surface of the tail either small or medium-sized and flat or lightly keeled. Males with 24 or 25 presacral vertebrae, females with 25. Males with irregular reticulate color pattern, females with two stair-shaped dorsal bands (Salvador 1982: 80). 
CommentSynonymy: Has been synonymized with A. maculatus and A. busacki. See BAUER & GÜNTHER 1995 for more information on the types of this species.

Distribution: Not in Israel, as the form from Isarel (beershebensis) has been split off as separate species. 
  • Baha el Din, S. 2006. A guide to the reptiles and amphibians of Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo. xvi + 359 pp.
  • Barata, Mafalda; Ana Perera, D. James Harris, Arie van der Meijden, Salvador Carranza, Francisco Ceacero, Enrique García-Muñoz, Duarte Gonçalves, Sérgio Henriques, Fátima Jorge, Jonathan C. Marshall, Luis Pedrajas and Pedro Sousa 2011. New observations of amphibians and reptiles in Morocco, with a special emphasis on the eastern region. Herpetological Bulletin (116): 4 - get paper here
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Jonathan C. DeBoer , Dylan J. Taylor 2017. Atlas of the Reptiles of Libya. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 64 (8): 155-318 - get paper here
  • Bauer, Aaron M.;Günther, Rainer 1995. An annotated type catalogue of the lacertids (Reptilia: Lacertidae) in the Zoological Museum, Berlin. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 71 (1): 37-62 - get paper here
  • BOUAZZA, ABDELLAH; EL HASSAN EL MOUDEN & ABDESLAM RIHANE 2021. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Morocco: A taxonomic update and standard Arabic names. Herpetology Notes 14: 1-14. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1919. Sur les lézards du genre Acanthodactylus Wieg. Bull. Soc. zool. France 43: 143-155 [1918] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1891. Catalogue of the reptiles and batrachians of Barbary (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), based chiefly upon the notes and collections made in 1880-1884 by M. Fernand Lataste. Tr. Zool. Soc. 13: 93-164
  • Busack, S.D. 1975. Biomass estimates and thermal environment of a population of the fringe–toed lizard Acanthodactylus pardalis. British Journal of Herpetology 5 (4): 457– 459. (species corrected to A. scutellatus by Salvador,1982, Bonn.Zool.Monog.15:5)
  • Fonseca, Miguel M.; José C. Brito, Hugo Rebelo, Mohsen Kalboussi, Saïd Larbes, Miguel A. Carretero, and D. James Harris 2008. Genetic variation among spiny-footed lizards in the Acanthodactylus pardalis group from North Africa. African Zoology 43 (1): 8-15 - get paper here
  • Johann, H. 1981. Herpetologische Eindrücke auf einer Reise durch die Sahara. Herpetofauna 3 (13): 17-21 - get paper here
  • Lichtenstein, M. HINRICH C. 1823. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss./ T. Trautwein, Berlin. x, 118 pages - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Mellado,J. & Olmedo,G. 1990. El género Acanthodactylus en Marruecos: problemas de identificación en los grupos de especies A. pardalis y A. scutellatus. Amphibia-Reptilia 11: 131-146 - get paper here
  • Moravec, J., S. B. EL DIN, H. SELIGMANN, N. SIVAN & Y. L. WERNER 1999. Systematics and distribution of the Acanthodactylus pardalis group (Lacertidae) in Egypt and Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 17: 21-50 - get paper here
  • Salvador, A 1982. A revision of the lizards of the genus Acanthodactylus (Sauria: Lacertidae). Bonner Zool. Monogr. (16): 1-167 - get paper here
  • Schleich, H.H. 1987. Contributions to the herpetology of Kouf National Park (NE-Libya) and adjacent areas. Spixiana 10 (1): 37-80. - get paper here
  • Schleich, H.H., Kästle,W., Kabisch, K. 1996. Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa. Koeltz, Koenigstein, 627 pp.
  • Schlüter, U. 2009. Fransenfingereidechsen (Acanthodactylus) in der Natur und im Terrarium. Teil 4: Die Acanthodactylus-pardalis-Gruppe. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (76): 52-60 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Spawls, Stephen; Tomáš Mazuch& Abubakr Mohammad 2023. Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of North-east Africa. Bloomsbury, 640 pp. - get paper here
  • van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.; Donato L. Ph. Ballasina, John T. Dekker, Jolanda Maas, Ronald E. Willemsen and Jaap Goudsmit 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships among the Species of the Genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 174-183 - get paper here
  • Werner Y L. 1991. Notable herpetofaunal records from Transjordan. Zoology in the Middle East 5: 37-42 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1894. Zweiter Beitrag zur Herpetologie von Ost-Algerien. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 44: 75-87 - get paper here
  • Werner, Y. L. 2004. A new species of the Acanthodactylus pardalis group (Reptilia: Lacertidae) from Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 32: 39–46 - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1931. Ergebnisse einer zoologischen Forschungsreise nach Marokko. III. Unternommen 1930 mit Unterstützung der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien von Franz Werner und Richard Ebner. III. Amphibien und Reptilien. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien Mathem.-Naturw., Sect. 1, 140: 272-318 - get paper here
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