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Adelphostigma quadriocellata (SANTOS, DI-BERNARDO & DE LEMA, 2008)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae, Echinantherini), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymTaeniophallus quadriocellatus SANTOS, DI-BERNARDO & DE LEMA 2008
Rhadinaea occipitalis — CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1978: 94
Rhadinaea occipitalis — CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1993: 94
Rhadinaea occipitalis — CUNHA et al. 1985: 64
Taeniophallus occipitalis — YUKI & SANTOS 1996: 45, 49
Taeniophallus occipitalis — ÁVILA-PIRES & HOOGMOED 1997: 396, 400
Taeniophallus occipitalis — BERNARDI et al., 2002: 537
Echinanthera occipitalis — SANTOS JR & LEMA 2004: 83 (partim)
Echinanthera aff. occipitalis — FROTA et al. 2005: 213 (partim)
Taeniophallus quadriocellatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 697
Taeniophallus quadriocelatus — VAZ-SILVA et al. 2015 (in error)
Taeniophallus quadriocellatus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Adelphostigma quadriocellata — ABEGG et al. 2022 
DistributionBrazil (Eastern Amazonia), elevation 800

Type locality: Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Estac¸ão Científica Ferreira Penna (01°42’30’’S and 51°31’45’’W),
Melgac¸o municipality, Pará, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: MPEG 20144, adult male, 11 February 2002 by E. F. Santos. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Taeniophallus quadriocellatus is distinguished from all congeners, except T. occipitalis in having 15-15-15 or 15-15-13 rows of dorsal scales (vs. 19-19-17, 17-17-17, or 17-1715), a vertebral series of dark paired spots extending from the first third of trunk to posterior portion of tail, and by the presence of a large spine in medium-basal region on the asulcate side of the organ (see Schargel et al., 2005 for color pattern and hemipenial morphology of other Taeniophallus species). Additionally, T. quadriocellatus can be distinguished from members of the T. affinis species group (sensu Schargel et al., 2005) by the presence of eight, rarely nine, supralabials (vs. seven) and nine, occasionally eight or seven infralabials (vs. eight, rarely seven or nine). Furthermore, the new species differs from T. bilineatus, T. brevirostris, T. nebularis, T. persimilis, and T. poecilopogon by having of 168–192 ventral scales (vs. 140–157, 137–166, 156, 123–137, and 145–163, respectively). It is also different from T. brevirostris and T. nebularis by the presence of 64–86 subcaudal scales (vs. 36–61 and 92, respectively). Taeniophallus quadriocellatus can be distinguished from T. occipitalis by the presence of four white ocelli bordered with black on the occipital region and anterior portion of trunk (Figs. 1, 2; vs. ocelli present or absent on the occipital region, always absent in the anterior portion of trunk) and the absence of small spines on the lateral surfaces of hemipenis at the level of the large basal spine on the asulcate side (vs. spines present) [from SANTOS et al. 2008]. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a Latin adjective, in allusion to the four white ocelli bordered with black, located on the occipital region and beginning of the trunk. 
  • Abegg AD, Santos AP Jr, Costa HC, Battilana J, Graboski R, Vianna FSL, Azevedo WS, Fagundes NJR, Castille CM, Prado PC, Bonatto SL, Zaher H and Grazziotin FG 2022. Increasing taxon sampling suggests a complete taxonomic rearrangement in Echinantherini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Front. Ecol. Evol. 10:969263 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Santos Jr, Alfredo P.; Marcos Di-Bernardo, and Thales de Lema 2008. New Species of the Taeniophallus occipitalis Group (Serpentes, Colubridae) from Eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 42 (3): 419-426 - get paper here
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98 - get paper here
  • Vaz-Silva, W.; RM Oliveira, AFN Gonzaga, KC Pinto, FC Poli, TM Bilce, M Penhacek, L Wronski, JX Martins, TG Junqueira, LCC, Cesca VY, Guimarães RD. Pinheiro 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil Braz. J. Biol., 75 (3) (suppl.): S205-S218 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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