You are here » home advanced search search results Afrotyphlops mucruso

Afrotyphlops mucruso (PETERS, 1854)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Afrotyphlops mucruso?

Add your own observation of
Afrotyphlops mucruso »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaTyphlopidae (Afrotyphlopinae), Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Zambezi Blind Snake 
SynonymOnychocephalus mucruso PETERS 1854: 621
Onychocephalus dinga PETERS 1854: 620 (nomen oblitum)
Onychocephalus varius PETERS 1860
Typhlops (Onychocephalus) riparius PETERS 1881
Typhlops dinga — PETERS 1882: 95
Typhlops varius — PETERS 1882
Typhlops mucruso — PETERS 1882
Typhlops riparius — PETERS 1882
Typhlops mandensis STEJNEGER 1893: 725
Typhlops dinga — BOULENGER 1893: 45
Typhlops mucruso — BOULENGER 1893: 46
Typhlops mucruso varius — CHUBB 1909
Typhlops latirostris STERNFELD 1910: 69
Typhlops viridiflavus PERACCA 1912
Typhlops excentricus PROCTER 1922
Typhlops schlegelii excentricus — LOVERIDGE 1933
Typhlops schlegelii mucruso — LOVERIDGE 1933
Typhlops schlegelii mucroso — PARKER 1936: 120 (error typographicus)
Typhlops schlegelii mucroso — BOGERT 1942
Typhlops schlegelii mucruso — LOVERIDGE 1955: 180
Rhinotyphlops schlegelii dinga — ROUX-ESTÈVE 1974: 166
Typhlops schlegelii mucroso — PITMAN 1974
Rhinotyphlops mucruso — BROADLEY 1998
Rhinotyphlops schlegelii mucroso [sic] — AUERBACH 1987: 147
Rhinotyphlops mucruso — SPAWLS et al. 2001
Rhinotyphlops mucruso — MALONZA et al. 2006
Rhinotyphlops mucruso — MENEGON et al. 2008
Megatyphlops mucruso — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2009
Megatyphlops mucruso — BROADLEY & BLAYLOCK 2013
Afrotyphlops mucruso — HEDGES et al. 2014
Megatyphlops mucruso — WALLACH et al. 2014: 431
Megatyphlops mucruso — BATES et al. 2014: 313
Afrotyphlops mucruso — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 348
Afrotyphlops dinga — TRAPE & COLLET 2021
Rhinotyphlops mucroso — ICLEI 2023 (in error) 
DistributionCoastal Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo (Katanga), Mozambique, Republic of South Africa (N Limpopo), NE Angola

Type locality: “Tette, Macanga” [Mozambique], restricted to “Makanga” by LOVERIDGE (1933) [for Onychocephalus mucruso PETERS 1854]  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 3945-7, 3963
Holotype: USNM 20125 [Typhlops mandensis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): An endemic African genus characterized by the following combination of characters: snout sharply angular in profile, with a keratinized horizontal edge in adults, supralabial imbrication pattern T-II or T-X, nasal shield incompletely divided and lacking posterior concavity, nostrils directed ventrally, inferior nasal suture contacting first or second supralabial or rostral (Megatyphlops anomalus), 3–7 postoculars, dorsal rostral broad (greater than 1/2 interocular head width), ventral rostral broad (greater than 1/2 internarial snout width), well-developed eye with discernible pupil, dorsum pigmented (often with lineate, mottled or blotched pattern), and vestigial left lung present. Other typical characters include 30–44 midbody scale rows, robust body (length/width 17–58), and large size (maximum length 350–950 mm). 
CommentType species: Onychocephalus mucruso PETERS 1854 is the type species of the genus Megatyphlops BROADLEY & WALLACH 2009.

Nomenclature. Danny Meirte argues that dinga has priority over mucruso, based on the pagination of their descriptions (D. Meirte, pers. comm., 15 April 2015); dinga is not a nomen oblitum as it has been used a number of times, e.g. in Roux-Estève 1974: 166 , Hahn 1977: 36, Largen 1978: 55, Poynton & Broadley 1978: 930, Broadley & Blake 1979: 10, Erasmus & Branch 1983: 98, Pakenham 1983: 22,  Obst et al. 1984 : 370, Branch 1986 : 290 , Staniszewski 1990: 133, Coborn 1991 : 110, Meirte 1992:19, Webb et al. 2001: 560, Cundall & Irish 2008: 599. The priority of dinga is supported by Trape & Collet 2021.

Description in BROADLEY & WALLACH 2009.

Distribution: not in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo fide Chippaux & Jackson 2019. However, reported from DRC by Trape & Collet 2021. 
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek) 18 (2): 117-145. - get paper here
  • Bianconi, J.J. 1847. Specimina Zoologica Mosambicana VII. Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna : 183 - get paper here
  • Bittencourt-Silva GB, Bayliss J, Conradie W. 2020. First herpetological surveys of Mount Lico and Mount Socone, Mozambique. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(2) [General Section]: 198–217 (e247) - get paper here
  • Bocage, J. V. BARBOZA DU 1873. Reptiles nouveaux de l'interieur de Mossamedes. Jor. Sci. math. phys. nat. Lisboa 4: 247-253 - get paper here
  • Bocage, J.V.B. du 1886. Typhlopiens nouveaux de la Faune africaine. Jorn. Sci. math. phys. nat., Lisboa, 11:171-174 - get paper here
  • Bocage, J.V.B. du 1893. Diagnoses de quelques nouvelles especes de reptiles et batraciens d‘Angola. J. Sci. math.-phys. nat., Lisboa, 3 (2): 115-121
  • Bogert, Charles M. 1942. Snakes secured by the Snyder East African Expedition in Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory. American Museum Novitates (1178): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1888. On new or little known South African reptiles. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 2: 136-141 - get paper here
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, V. 2009. A review of the eastern and southern African blind-snakes (Serpentes: Typhlopidae), excluding Letheobia Cope, with the description of two new genera and a new species. Zootaxa 2255: 1-100 - get paper here
  • Broadley, Donald G. and F. P. D. Cotterill. 2004. The reptiles of southeast Katanga, an overlooked 'hot spot'. [Congo]. African Journal of Herpetology 53 (1): 35-61. - get paper here
  • Buruwate, T. C., & Lloyd-Jones, D. J. 2024. Amphibian and Reptile Diversity of Niassa Special Reserve, Northern Mozambique. Journal of East African Natural History, 113(1), 1-18 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chubb, E. C. 1909. The Batrachians and Reptiles of Matabeleland. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1909:590-597 - get paper here
  • Chubb, E. C. 1909. List of the Rhodesian Batrachians and Reptiles in the Rhodesian Museum Collection. Ann. Rep. Rhodesia Mus., Bulawayo, 8:34-36
  • Farooq, Harith; Cristóvão Nanvonamuquitxo, Bibiana Nassongole, Werner Conradie, Roger Bills, Amadeu Soares, and Alexandre Antonelli 2022. Shedding Light on a Biodiversity Dark Spot: Survey Of Amphibians and Reptiles of Pemba Region in Northern Mozambique. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 17 (2): - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V. 1966. A check-list, with syntopic keys, to the snakes of southern Africa. Annals Transvaal Museum 25 (3): 35-79 - get paper here
  • Haagner,G.V.; Branch,W.R. & Haagner,A.J.F. 2000. Notes on a collection of reptiles from Zambia and adjacent areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Annals of the Eastern Cape Museum 1: 1 – 25
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • ICLEI 2023. A catalogue of Dar es Salaam’s native biodiversity: A guide for urban planners, decision-makers, plant nurseries and the public. An INTERACT-Bio report. ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, 86 pp. - get paper here
  • Lanza, B. 1990. Amphibians and reptiles of the Somali Democratic Republic: check list and biogeography. Biogeographia, 14: 407-465 [1988] - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1955. On a second collection of reptiles and amphibians taken in Tanganyika Territory by C. J. P. lonides,. Journ. E. Africa Nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 169-198
  • Loveridge, A. 1956. On snakes collected in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan by J.S. Owen, Esq. Sudan Notes Rec. 36: 37-56 [1955]
  • Loveridge, Arthur 1929. East African reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (151): 1-135 - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1933. Reports on the scientific Results of an Expedition to the Southwestem Highlands of Tanganyika Territory. VII. Herpetology. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 74: 197-415 - get paper here
  • Malonza, Patrick K.; David M. Mulwa, Joash O. Nyamache, Georgina Jones 2017. Biogeography of the Shimba Hills ecosystem herpetofauna in Kenya. Zoological Research 38(5): 1-11 - get paper here
  • Malonza, Patrick K.; Victor D. Wasonga, Vincent Muchai , Damaris Rotich, Beryl A. Bwong; A.M. Bauer 2006. DIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF HERPETOFAUNA OF THE TANA RIVER PRIMATE NATIONAL RESERVE, KENYA. Journal of East African Natural History 95(2): 95–109 - get paper here
  • Marais, J. 2004. A Complete Guide to the Snakes of Southern Africa, 2nd ed. Struik Publishers, 312 pp.
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Menegon, Michele; Nike Doggart, Nisha Owen 2008. The Nguru mountains of Tanzania, an outstanding hotspot of herpetofaunal diversity. Acta Herpetologica 3 (2): 107-127
  • Parker, H.W. 1936. Dr. Karl Jordan's expedition to South-West Africa and Angola: herpetological collections. Novitates Zoologicae 40: 115-146 - get paper here
  • Parker,H.W. 1949. The snakes of Somaliland and the Sokotra islands. Zoologische Verhandelingen 6: 1-115 - get paper here
  • Peracca, M.G. 1912. Rettili ed Amfibi raccolti durante i viaggi di S. A. la Duchessa Elena d’Aosta nella regione dei grandi laghi dell’ Africa equatoriale. Annuario Mus. zool. Univ. Napoli, (2) 3 (25): 1-8
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1860. Über eine neue zu der Gattung Onychocephalus gehörige Wurmschlange, Onychocephalus macrurus, und Vergleich mit den bisher von dieser Gattung bekannt gewordenen Arten. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1860 (Februar): 77-83 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1881. Über das Vorkommen schildförmiger Verbreiterungen der Dornfortsätze bei Schlangen und über neue oder weniger bekannte Arten dieser Abtheilung der Reptilien. Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 1881 (3): 49-52 - get paper here
  • Peters,W. 1882. Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique auf Befehl seiner Majestät es Königs Friedrich Wilhelm IV. in den Jahren 1842 bis 1848 ausgefeführt von Wilhelm C. Peters. Zoologie III. Amphibien. Berlin (Reimer), 191pp.
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1854. Diagnosen neuer Batrachier, welche zusammen mit der früher (24. Juli und 17. August) gegebenen Übersicht der Schlangen und Eidechsen mitgetheilt werden. Ber. Bekanntmach. Geeignet. Verhandl. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1854: 614-628
  • Pietersen DW, Pietersen EW, Conradie W. 2017. Preliminary herpetological survey of Ngonye Falls and surrounding regions in south-western Zambia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 11(1) [Special Section]: 24–43 (e148 - get paper here
  • Pietersen, Darren, Verburgt, Luke & Davies, John 2021. Snakes and other reptiles of Zambia and Malawi. Struik Nature / Penguin Random House South Africa, 376 pp., ISBN 9781775847373
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Procter, J.B. 1922. Description of a new Typhlops from Tanganyika Territory. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 9: 685-686 - get paper here
  • Roux-Estève, R. 1974. Révision systématique des Typhlopidae d'Afrique. Reptilia. Serpentes. Mém. nation. Hist. nat., Paris, (sér.A.) 87: 1-313
  • Scortecci, G. 1929. Primo contributo alla conoscenza dei Rettili e degli Anfibi della Somalia italiana. Atti Soc. ital. Sci. nat. 68: 245-279
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1893. On some collections of reptiles and batrachians from East Africa and the adjacent islands, recently received from Dr. W. L. Abbott and Mr. William Astor Chanler, with descriptions of new species. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 16: 711-741 - get paper here
  • Sternfeld, R. 1910. Neue Schlangen aus Kamerun, Abessynien und Deutsch-Ostafrika. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berlin 5: 67-70 - get paper here
  • TRAPE, Jean-François & Marcel COLLET 2021. Nouvelles données sur les serpents du sud-est du Katanga (République démocratique du Congo). Bull. Soc. Herp. Fr. (2021) 179 | 11-26 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Webb, JK, Branch, WR & Shine, R. 2001. Dietary Habits and Reproductive Biology of Typhlopid Snakes from Southern Africa. Journal of Herpetology 35 (4): 558-667 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de 1933. Reptiles récoltés au Conge Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. Witte. Ann. Mus. Conge belge Zool. Ser. 1 Tome III: 53-100.
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator