You are here » home advanced search Agkistrodon contortrix

Agkistrodon contortrix (LINNAEUS, 1766)

IUCN Red List - Agkistrodon contortrix - Least Concern, LC

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesAgkistrodon contortrix contortrix (LINNAEUS 1766)
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus GLOYD & CONANT 1934
Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen PALISOT DE BEAUVOIS 1799
Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster GLOYD 1969: 220
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster GLOYD & CONANT 1943 
Common NamesE: Southern Copperhead
laticinctus: Broad-banded Copperhead
mokasen: Northern Copperhead
phaeogaster: Osage Copperhead
pictigaster: Trans-Pecos Copperhead
G: Kupferkopf 
SynonymBoa contortrix LINNAEUS 1766: 373
Ancistrodon contortrix — BAIRD 1854: 13
Agkistrodon contortrix — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 17
Trigonocephalus contortrix — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1494
Cenchris atrofuscus — THEOBALD 1868
Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix — GLOYD & CONANT 1990
Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 227
Agkistrodon contortrix — LINER 1994
Agkistrodon contortrix — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 236
Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 478
Agkistrodon contortrix — CROTHER et al. 2012

Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus GLOYD & CONANT 1934
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus GLOYD & CONANT 1934
Agkistrodon mokasen laticinctus — GLOYD & CONANT 1943
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — GLOYD & CONANT 1990
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 228
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 486
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus — LAITA 2013

Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen (PALISOT DE BEAUVOIS 1799)
Agkistrodon mokason PALISOT DE BEAUVOIS 1799
Cenchris mokeson DAUDIN 1803
Agkistrodon mokasen mokasen — BURT 1935
Agkistrodon mokasen mokasen — CONANT 1938
Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen — GLOYD & CONANT 1990
Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 226
Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson — WELCH 1994: 11 (in error)
Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 481
Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen — CROTHER et al. 2012

Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster GLOYD 1969
Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster — GLOYD & CONANT 1990
Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 227
Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 484
Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster — CROTHER et al. 2012

Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster GLOYD & CONANT 1943
Agkistrodon mokeson pictigaster GLOYD & CONANT 1943
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — GLOYD & CONANT 1990
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 228
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000” 488
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — CROTHER et al. 2012
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster — LOVE 2013 
DistributionUSA (Texas, E/C Oklahoma, E Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, S Illinois, S Indiana, S Ohio, Iowa,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, S New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts),
Mexico (NE Chihuahua, N Coahuila)

contortrix: E Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana

laticinctus: C/NC Texas, into C Oklahoma, north to Kansas; Type locality: Texas, Bexar, 41.8 km NW San Antonio.

mokasen: Massachussetts, Connecticut, SE New York, N New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois.

phaeogaster: Kansas, Missouri, Texas

pictigaster: Texas, adjacent Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila); Type locality.—Maple Canyon, Chisos Mountains, 5,200 feet elevation, Brewster County, Texas; Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesType: The type specimen was not found among Linnaean materials examined by Lannberg (1896) and by Andersson (1899, 1900) [from McDiarmid et al. 1999]
Holotype: UMMZ [laticinctus]
Holotype: Chicago Acad. Sci. No. 4857 [pictigaster] 
CommentVenomous!

Type species: Agkistrodon mokasen Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 [= Agkistrodon contortrix (Linnaeus, 1766)] is the type species of the genus Agkistorodon PALISOT DE BEAUVOIS 1799.

The monophyletic Florida subspecies of A. piscivorus may be a distinct species (at 4.8% SD), whereas two western subspecies of A. contortrix also appear to constitute a single distinct species, pending additional analyses. We conclude that both species of Agkistrodon can be used as suitable ectothermic models to gauge impacts of future climate change (DOUGLAS et al. 2009).

Reproduction: viviparous; facultative parthenogenesis (BOOTH et al. 2012). 
References
  • Axtell, Ralph W. 1939. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE BLACK GAP WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA, BREWSTER COUNTY, TEXAS. THE SOUTHWESTERN NATURALIST 4 (2): 88-109
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
  • Barbour, R. W. 1962. An aggregation of copperheads, Agkistrodon contortrix. Copeia 1962 (3): 640 - get paper here
  • Bogosian, Victor; Eric C. Hellgren, and Raymond W. Moody 2012. Assemblages of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals on an Urban Military Base in Oklahoma. The Southwestern Naturalist 57 (3): 277-284. - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. 2005. Der “Savannah River Ecology Site” und seine herpetologischen Highlights. Herpetofauna 25 (142): 13-21 - get paper here
  • Booth, Warren; Charles F. Smith, Pamela H. Eskridge, Shannon K. Hoss, Joseph R. Mendelson III, and G 2012. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates. Biol. Lett. 8: 983-985 - get paper here
  • Braswell, A.L.; Palmer, W.M. & Beane, J.C. 2003. Venomous Snakes of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, 31 pp.
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Christiansen, J.L., & Bailey, R.M. 1990. The snakes of Iowa. Iowa Dept. of Natur. Resources, Des Moines 16 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Conant, Roger 1938. The Reptiles of Ohio. American Midland Naturalist 20 (1): 1-200 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cook, F.A. 1962. Snakes of Mississippi. rev.ed Wildl. Mus., Mississippi Game and Fish Commission, Jackson 45 pp.
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetological Circular 29: 1-82
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dixon, James R.;Thornton, Okla W., Jr 1996. Geographic Distribution. Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus. Herpetological Review 27 (1): 33 - get paper here
  • Douglas, Michael E.;Marlis R. Douglas, Gordon W. Schuett and Louis W. Porras 2009. Climate change and evolution of the New World pitviper genus Agkistrodon (Viperidae). Journal of Biogeography 36: 1164-1180
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Gloyd and Conant 1943. A synopsis of the American forms of Agkistrodon (Copperheads and Moccasins). Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 7: 147-170
  • Gloyd H. and Conant R. 1934. The broad-banded copperhead: a new spubspecies of Agkistrodon mokasen. Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, No. 283, p. 2
  • Gloyd, H. K. 1969. Two additional subspecies of North American crotalid snakes, genus Agkistrodon. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 82: 219-232 - get paper here
  • Gloyd, H. K. & R. CONANT 1990. Snakes of the Agkistrodon complex. A monographic review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Contributions to Herpetology No. 6. SSAR, Oxford, Ohio. vi + 614 pp; 52 pl.
  • Gloyd, Howard K.;Conant, Roger 1938. The subspecies of the copperhead, Agkistrodon mokasen Beauvois. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 5 (7): 163-166 + 1 plate
  • Green, N.B., & Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 241 pp.
  • Greenbaum, Eli & Michael Jorgensen 2004. Envenomated-invertebrate prey preference of the viperid Agkistrodon contortrix during strike-induced chemosensory searching. Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (2): 165-172 - get paper here
  • Guiher, Timothy J. and Frank T. Burbrink 2008. Demographic and phylogeographic histories of two venomous North American snakes of the genus Agkistrodon. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48 (2): 543-553 - get paper here
  • Haynie,M.R. & Knight,A. 1998. Color pattern variants in the Trans-Pecos copperhead. Southwestern Naturalist 43: 499 - get paper here
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1956. Agkistrodon or Ancistrodon?. Copeia 1956 (4): 258-259 - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Linné, C. von [= Linnaeus, C.] 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, Holmiae. 1-532 pp. - get paper here
  • Linzey, D.W., & Clifford, M.J. 1981. Snakes of Virgina. Univ. Press of Virginia, Charlottesville 159 pp.
  • Livezey, Robert L. 1949. An aberrant pattern of Agkistrodon mokeson austrinus. Herpetologica 5: 93 - get paper here
  • Love, B. 2013. Klapperschlangen-Roundups. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (102): 14-15 - get paper here
  • Luef, H. 2008. North Carolinas südliche Küstenebene - Ein Paradies für Reptilienfreunde. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (70): 38-49 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Means, D. Bruce 1998. Geographic distribution. Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 175 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J. C. & Reay, K.K. 1999. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Virginia. Specialty Publication 1, VA Dept of Game and Fisheries, 122 pp. - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J.C. 1994. The reptiles of Virginia. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, ca. 350 pp.
  • Ortenburger, A. I. 1927. A key to the snakes of Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Sciences 6: 197-218
  • Palisot de Beauvois 1799. Trans American Philos. Soc. 4: 362-381
  • Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
  • Palmer, William M. 1965. Intergradation among the copperheads (Agkistrodon contortrix) in the North Carolina coastal plain. Copeia 1965 (2): 246-247 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Petzing, John;Phillips, Christopher A. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Agkistrodon contortrix. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 111 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R.Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2009. Neogene diversification and taxonomic stability in the snake tribe Lampropeltini (Serpentes: Colubridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 (2): 524-529 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, D. 2003. Der Kupferkopf (Agkistrodon contortrix) - eine Anfängerschlange?. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (40): 56-63 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, D. 2003. Der Kupferkopf (Agkistrodon controtrix) - eine Anfängerschlange?. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (41): 65-71 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Dieter 2006. Der Kupferkopf (Agkistrodon contortrix). Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 64 pp. - get paper here
  • Schuett, Gordon W. 1982. A copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) brood produced from Autum copulations. Copeia 1982 (3): 700-702 - get paper here
  • Seifert, Wayne 1972. Habitat, variations & intergradation of the Trans Pecos copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster in Texas. Dallas Museum of Natural History Bulletin (2): iv, 1-10, 2 plates
  • Smith, C. F.; K. Schwenk, R. L. Earley & G. W. Schuett 2008. Sexual size dimorphism of the tongue in a North American pitviper. Journal of Zoology 274: 367–374
  • Smith, Charles F.; Gordon W. Schuett, Ryan L. Earley, and Kurt Schwenk 2010. THE SPATIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF THE COPPERHEAD (AGKISTRODON CONTORTRIX) AT THE NORTHEASTERN EXTREME OF ITS RANGE. Herpetological Monographs 23 (1): 45-73 [2009] - get paper here
  • Smith, H. M.; Gloyd, H. K. 1964. Nomenclatural notes on the snake names Scytale, Boa scytale, and Agkistrodon mokasen. Herpetologica 19 (4): 280-282 - get paper here
  • Steen, David A.; Christopher J. W. McClure, William B. Sutton, D. Craig Rudolph, Josh B. Pierce, Jam 2014. Copperheads are Common when Kingsnakes are Not: Relationships Between the Abundances of a Predator and One of their Prey. Herpetologica Mar 2014, Vol. 70, No. 1: 69-76. - get paper here
  • Strimple, Peter D. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen. Herpetological Review 27 (1): 33 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Theobald, WILLIAM 1868. Catalogue of reptiles in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 37 (extra number 146): (2), vi, 7-88 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 1984. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Kupferkopfs - Agkistrodon contortrix (LINNAEUS 1766). Herpetofauna 7 (35): 14-26 - get paper here
  • Voris, H.K., D.R. Karns, K.A. Feldheim, B. Kechavarzi, and M. Rinehart. 2008. Multiple paternity in the oriental-australian rear-fanged watersnakes (Homalopsidae). Herp. Cons. Biol. 3: 88-102
  • Werler, John E.&; James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
  • Wilgers, D.J.; Horne, E.A.; Sandercock, B.K. & Volkmann, A.W. 2006. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the Tall-grass Prairie [Flint Hills, Kansas/Oklahoma]. Herpetologica 62 (4): 378-388 - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator