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Agkistrodon piscivorus (LACÉPÈDE, 1789)

IUCN Red List - Agkistrodon piscivorus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesAgkistrodon piscivorus conanti GLOYD 1969: 226
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (TROOST 1836)
Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus (LACÉPÈDE 1789) 
Common NamesE: conanti: Florida Cottonmouth
piscivorus: Eastern Cottonmouth
leucostoma: Western Cottonmouth
G: Wasser-Mokassinotter 
SynonymCrotalus piscivorus LACÉPÈDE 1789: 130
Trigonocephalus piscivorus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1491
Ancistrodon piscivorus — COPE 1860: 336
Toxicophis piscivorus — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Agkistrodon piscivorus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 238
Agkistrodon piscivorus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti GLOYD 1969
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti GLOYD 1969
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 229
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 491
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti — SCHMIDT & KUNZ 2005
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti — CROTHER et al. 2012

Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus (LACÉPÈDE 1789)
Crotalus piscivorus LACÉPÈDE 1789: 130
Agkistrodon piscivorus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 228
Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 490
Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (TROOST 1836)
Acontias leucostoma TROOST 1836
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 229
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma — CROTHER 2000: 56
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma — DIXON 2000
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 494
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (Texas, S/E Oklahoma, S Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Kansas, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, E North Carolina, W Tennessee, W Kentucky, S Illinois, Indiana, SE Virginia)

piscivorus: Atlantic coastal plain south from SE Virginia west to Alabama, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina. Type locality: “Carolina”; Schmidt (1953 :225) proposed to restrict it to the vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina.

conanti: Florida and S Georgia; Type locality: "at edge of Rochelle-Cross Creek Road, about 7 miles southeast of Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida".

leucostoma: from the Mexican border (Rio Grande valley) through Texas, E Oklahoma to C Missouri and S Illinois, W Kentucky, Tennessee to Mobil Bay, Alabama. Type locality: "western district of Tennessee." Proposed emendation to "10 miles northeast of Bolivar, Hardeman County, Tennessee" by
Schmidt (1953:225). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesTYPE(S): unlocated fide McDiarmid et al. 1999
Holotype: USNM 165962 [conanti] 
CommentVenomous!

Taxonomy: The monophyletic Florida subspecies of A. piscivorus may be a distinct species (at 4.8% SD), whereas two western subspecies of A. contortrix also appear to constitute a single distinct species, pending additional analyses. Both species of Agkistrodon can be used as suitable ectothermic models to gauge impacts of future climate change (DOUGLAS et al. 2009).

ICZN opinion 1463 retains the name of LACÉPÈDE 1789.

Habitat: occasionally in brackish waters (”marine”).

Reproduction: viviparous; facultative parthenogenesis (BOOTH et al. 2012). 
References
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  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
  • Blem, Charles R.;Blem, Leann B. 1995. The eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) at the northern edge of its range Journal of Herpetology 29 (3): 391-398 - get paper here
  • Booth, Warren; Charles F. Smith, Pamela H. Eskridge, Shannon K. Hoss, Joseph R. Mendelson III, and G 2012. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates. Biol. Lett. 8: 983-985 - get paper here
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  • ICZN 1987. Opinion 1463. De Lacepede 1788-1789, Histoire Naturelle des Serpens and later editions: rejected as a non-binominal work. Bull. Zool. Nom. 44(4): 265-267. - get paper here
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