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Aipysurus laevis LACÉPÈDE, 1804

IUCN Red List - Aipysurus laevis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesAipysurus laevis laevis LACÉPÈDE 1804
Aipysurus laevis pooleorum SMITH 1974 
Common NamesOlive-brown seasnake
pooleorum: Shark Bay Seasnake 
SynonymAipysurus laevis LACÉPÈDE 1804: 210
Hypotropis jukesii GRAY 1846: 284
Aipysurus laevis — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1326
Aipysurus fuliginosus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1327
Aipysurus laevis — FISCHER 1856: 32
Aipysurus fuliginosus — FISCHER 1856: 32
Aipysurus laevis - COGGER 1983: 244
Aipysurus laevis — COGGER 2000: 703
Smithsohydrophis laevis

Aipysurus laevis pooleorum SMITH 1974
Aipysurus laevis pooleorum — COGGER 1983: 244
Aipysurus pooleorum — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1983
Aipysurus pooleorum — EHMANN 1992: 463
Aipysurus laevis pooleorum — COGGER 2000: 704
Aipysurus laevis pooleorum — KHARIN 2005
Aipysurus pooleorum — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 522 
Distributionwaters around Indonesia (Timor), New Guinea, east to New Caledonia,
Australia (New South Wales?, North Territory, Queensland, West Australia)

pooleorum: Australia (West Australia, midwest coast [Shark Bay]); Type locality: Shark Bay, W. A.

Type locality: Locker Is., off Onslow, Western Australia, in 21° 44'S, 114° 46'E., designated by Smith (1974). Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesNeotype: WAM R22384, from near Locker Is., off Onslow, Western Australia, in 21° 44'S, 114° 46'E., designated by Smith (1974).
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.9.53, from near Darnley Is., Torres Strait (as near Darnley Islands, Port Essington), Qld. [Hypotropis jukesii].
Holotype: MNHP 639, from New Caledonia [Aipysurus fuliginosus].
Holotype: WAM R21366, from Shark Bay, W. A. [pooleorum] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy after COGGER 1983. Aipysurus laevis pooleorum SMITH 1974 has been elevated to species level. Kaiser et al. 2013 rejected the generic name Oceanius Wells 2007 and synonymized it with Aipysurus.

Type species: Aipysurus laevis LACÉPÈDE 1804 is the type species of the genus Aipysurus LACÉPÈDE 1804.

Habitat: marine.

Reproduction: viviparous.

Hybridization: A. laevis hybridizes with A. fuscus (Sanders et al. 2014) 
EtymologyEtymology: Named after Latin “laevis” = smooth. 
References
  • Aubret, Fabien. 2006. Aipysurus pooleorum Avian predation. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 93 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A. M. & SADLIER, R. A. (eds.) 2000. The herpetofauna of New Caledonia. Contributions to Herpetology, 17; Society for Study Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Burns,Glen & Heatwole,Harold 2000. Growth, sexual dimorphism, and population biology of the olive sea snake, Aipysurus laevis, on the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. Amphibia-Reptilia 21 (3): 289-300 - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 1975. The sea snakes of Australia and New Guinea. pp. 59-139 in Dunson, W. (ed. ) The Biology of Sea Snakes. Baltimore: University Park Press
  • Cogger,H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Ehmann, Harold 1992. Encyclopedia of Australian Animals: Reptiles. Angus & Robertson, Pymble, NSW, 495 pp.
  • Fischer, J.G. 1856. Die Familie der Seeschlangen. Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 3: 1-78
  • Gray, J. E. 1846. A new genus of sea-snake from Port Essington. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 18: 284 - get paper here
  • Heatwole, H. 1987. Sea snakes. The New South Wales university Press, 85 pp.
  • Kharin, V. E. 1981. A review of sea snakes of the genus Aipysurus (Serpentes, Hydrophiidae) Zoological Zhurnal 60 (2): 257-264
  • Kharin, V.E.; Cheblyukov, V.P. 2006. On a new record of a poorly known and rare sea snake Aipysurus tenuis Lönnberg et Andersson, 1913 (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae) in the waters of Australia. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 32 (3): 194-197.
  • Kukoschek, V.; Heatwole, H.; Grech, A.; Burns, G.; Marsh, H. 2007. Distribution of two species of sea snakes, Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus, in the southern Great Barrier Reef: metapopulation dynamics, marine protected areas and conservation. Coral Reefs 26(2):291-307
  • LaCépède, B. G. E. L. 1804. Mémoire sur plusieurs animaux de la Nouvelle- Hollande dont la description n’a pas encore été publiée. Annales du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 4:184-211
  • LUKOSCHEK,VIMOKSALEHI; MICHELLE WAYCOTT and GLENN DUNSHEA 2005. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the Australasian sea snake, Aipysurus laevis. Molecular Ecology Notes 5: 879–881
  • Minton S A; Dunson W W 1985. Sea snakes collected at Chesterfield Reefs, Coral Sea. ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN No. 292: 101-108
  • Redfield, J. A., Holmes, J. C. & Holmes, R. D. 1978. Sea snakes of the eastern Gulf of Carpentaria. Aust. J Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29: 325-334
  • Sanders, K.L., Rasmussen, A.R., Guinea, M.L. 2014. High rates of hybridisation reveal fragile reproductive barriers between endangered Australian sea snakes. Biological Conservation 171: 200 - 208 - get paper here
  • Smith, L. A. 1974. The sea snakes of Western Australia (Serpentes: Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) with a description of a new subspecies. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3: 93-110 - get paper here
  • Smith, M. A. 1926. Monograph on the Sea Snakes. (Hydrophiidae). London: British Museum, xvii + 130 pp.
  • Wells, R. W. 2007. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural considerations on the class Reptilia in Australia. The sea snakes of Australia. An introduction to the members of the families Hydrophiidae and Laticaudidae in Australia, with a new familial and generic arrangement. Australian Biodiversity Record (8):1–124
  • Wilson,S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
  • Zimmerman, K. D.;Shohet, D. 1994. Observations on newborn olive sea snakes, Aipysurus laevis, and resulting divisions of its life cycle The Snake 26 (1): 51-56
 
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