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Alopoglossus copii BOULENGER, 1885

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Higher TaxaAlopoglossidae, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesDrab Shade Lizard 
SynonymAlopoglossus copii BOULENGER 1885: 383
Alopoglossus copii — DUELLMAN 1978: 210
Alopoglossus copii — CASTOE et al. 2004
Alopoglossus copii — KÖHLER et al. 2012 
DistributionColombia (Amazonas), N Peru, Ecuador, elevation 310–1390 m.

Type locality: Canelos and Pallatanga, Ecuador  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.8.31.58-59, 1946.9.8.17-18 (4) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Alopoglossus differs from other gymnophthalmid genera except Ptychoglossus in having the dorsal surface of the tongue completely covered with anteromedially converging plicae rather than scale-like papillae (Harris 1994; Hoogmoed and Avila-Pires 1992). Alopoglossus differs from Ptychoglossus (character states for Ptychoglossus in parentheses) in having keeled scales on forelimbs (smooth forelimb scales), and rhomboid, laterally imbricating dorsal scales (parallel-sided dorsal scales; Harris 1994) [from TORRES-CARVAJAL & LOBOS 2014].

Diagnosis (genus): Alopoglossous differs from all gymnophthalmoid genera, except Ptychoglossus Boulenger (1890), in having an open Meckel’s groove (closed in other genera except for Gymnophthalmus Merrem 1820 and Heterodactylus Spix 1825), a tubular frontal bone (flanged in Gymnophthalmus and Heterodactylus) (Goicoechea et al. 2016), and oblique plicae (folds), instead of scale-like papillae, on the surface of the tongue (Harris 1985). From Ptychoglossus (in parentheses), they differ in having keeled scales on forelimbs (smooth forelimb scales), and rhomboid, laterally imbricating dorsal scales (parallel-sided dorsal scales) (Harris 1994, Ribeiro-Júnior 2018).

Diagnosis. Scales on sides of neck large and conical with free skin between scales; gulars in oblique irregular rows; keels of dorsals on posterior dorsum forming longitudinal ridges; scales on flanks similar to dorsals ventrals smooth or weakly keeled, posterior margins round or obtusely pointed [KÖHLER et al. 2012]. 
CommentNot in Costa Rica fide F. Bolaños (pers. comm.). Not in Panama or elsewhere in Central America (P. Bowles, pers. comm., 17 Oct 2011).

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER et al. 2012.

Type species: Alopoglossus copii BOULENGER 1885: 383 is the type species of the genus Alopoglossus BOULENGER 1885.

Key: Ribeiro-Júnior 2018 provides a key to all Alopoglossus.

Type genus: Alopoglossus BOULENGER 1885 is the type genus of the family Alopoglossidae GOICOECHEA et al. 2016. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Castoe, T.A.; Doan, T.M. & Parkinson, C.L. 2004. Data partitions and complex models in Bayesian analysis: the phylogeny of Gymnophthalmid lizards. Systematic Biology 53 (3): 448-469 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman,W.E. & Mendelson III, J.R. 1995. Amphibians and reptiles from Northern Departamento Loreto, Peru: Taxonomy and Biogeography. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 55 (10): 329-376
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther; Hans-Helmut Diethert, and Milan Veselý 2012. A Contribution To the Knowledge of the Lizard Genus Alopoglossus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Herpetological Monographs 26 (1): 173-188. - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1952. Revisionary notes of some South American Teiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 106: 475-529 (477?)-529. - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Valencia, J. H., K. Garzón-Tello & M. E. Barragán-Paladines 2016. Serpientes venenosas del Ecuador: sistemática, taxonomía, historia natural, conservación, envenenamiento y aspectos antropológicos. Quito, Ecuador, Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Universidad de Texas, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, 652 pp. [review in HR 49 (1): 152, 2018]
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