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Ameiva ameiva (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Sauria (lizards) 
SubspeciesAmeiva ameiva ameiva (LINNAEUS 1758)
Ameiva ameiva fulginosa COPE 1862
Ameiva ameiva tobagana (COPE 1879) 
Common NamesGiant Ameiva, Amazon Racerunner 
SynonymLacerta Ameiva LINNAEUS 1758: 202
Lacerta Surinamensis SEBA 1734: 139
Lacerta Americana SEBA 1734: 141
Lacerta Tigrina Ceilonica SEBA 1734: 143
Lacerta Ameiva — GMELIN 1789: 1065
Lacerta Ameiva — DAUDIN 1802: 98
Seps surinamensis LAURENTI 1768: 59 (fide GÜNTHER 1885)
Seps zeylanicus LAURENTI 1768: 59
Ameiva americana MEYER 1795: 28 (nom. subst. for Lacerta Ameiva GMELIN)
Lacerta ameiva — DAUDIN 1802: 98
Lacerta litterata DAUDIN 1802: 106
Lacerta graphica DAUDIN 1802: 112
Lacerta ameiva — SHAW & NODDER 1809: plate 891
Am[eiva] lateristriga CUVIER 1817: 28
Ameiva vulgaris LICHTENSTEIN 1823 (nom. subst. for Lacerta Ameiva LINN.)
Teius tritaeniatus SPIX 1825: 22
Ameiva litterata - FITZINGER 1826: 51
Ameiva maculata GRAY 1838: 277
Ameiva vulgaris - DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 100
Ameiva guttata GRAY 1845: 18
Ameiva laeta COPE 1862: 65
Ameiva surinamensis COPE 1862: 67
Lacerta tristriata COPE 1862 (in error for Teius tritaeniatus SPIX)
Ameiva petersii COPE 1868: 99
Ameiva bifrontata PETERS 1871: 398
Ameiva pleurotaenia PETERS 1871 (nom. subst. for Ameiva bifrontata)
Amiva [sic] surinamensis - COPE 1876: 165
Ameiva surinamensis — GÜNTHER 1885: 22
Ameiva surinamensis - BOULENGER 1885: 352
Ameiva surinamensis - BOULENGER 1894: 344
Ameiva ameiva ameiva - BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915: 462
Ameiva ameiva bilineata - BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915: 464
Ameiva ameiva laeta - BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915: 467
Ameiva ameiva petersii - BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915: 466
Ameiva ameiva - GRIFFIN 1917: 312
Ameiva ameiva petersi — DUELLMAN 1978: 210
Ameiva ameiva — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 127
Ameiva ameiva - CEI 1993
Ameiva ameiva — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 181
Ameiva ameiva petersi — BAUER et al. 1995: 66
Ameiva ameiva — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Ameiva ameiva petersi — SCHLÜTER 2006

Ameiva ameiva fuliginosa COPE 1862
Tiaporus fuliginosus COPE 1862
Ameiva panchlora BARBOUR 1921 (fide DUNN & SAXE 1950: 156)
Ameiva ameiva fulginosa [sic] — UGUETO & HARVEY 2011
Ameiva ameiva fuliginosa — MCNISH 2011

Ameiva ameiva tobagana (COPE 1879)
Amiva [sic] surinamensis tobagana — COPE 1879: 276
Ameiva surinamensis var. aquilina GARMAN 1887
Ameiva tobagana — BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915
Ameiva tobagana — BARBOUR 1916
Ameiva ameiva tobagana — MERTENS 1972
Ameiva ameiva tobagana — KRINTLER 1982
Ameiva ameiva tobagana — UGUETO & HARVEY 2011 
DistributionColombia, Surinam, French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela (Trujillo, Cojedes), Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Paraná [HR 27: 216], Minas Gerais, Goias, Pernambuco, Espírito Santo, Ceará, Mato Grosso, Sergipe, Rio de Janeiro), Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz, Tarija), Ecuador, Peru, Argentina (Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, Formosa, Chaco, Corrientes, Danta Fe, Entre Ríos), Paraguay.

USA (introduced to S Florida)

fulginosa: Providencia, Swan Islands, San Andrés (Colombia)

tobagana: Grenada, Trinidad, Tobago; Type locality: Grenada or St. Vincent.

not recognized anymore: aquilina: St. Vincent, Grenadines, Grenada; laeta: SE Brazil; petersi: Brazil (upper Amazon basin)

Type locality: “America”; Brazil (fide SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 181); restricted to “confluence of Cottica River and Preica Creek, Suriname” by HOOGMOED 1973. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: 2 specimen in NRM (NHRM) and 1 in Gyllenborg collection, Uppsala.
Syntype: ANSP 19595 [aquilina] 
CommentSynonymy after CEI 1993 and UGUETO & HARVEY 2011. Several subspecies have been elevated to species status (praesignis, atrigularis) or synonymized with them (or A. ameiva) by UGUETO & HARVEY 2011 who also suggest that fulginsoa and tobagana may be full species.

Type species: Ameiva americana MEYER 1795 is the type species of the genus Ameiva MEYER 1795. Meyer (1795) proposed “Ameiua” to accommodate fourteen species listed by Gmelin (1789), including several species no longer included in this genus such as Lacerta Teguixin Linnaeus (= Tupinambis teguixin). Meyer further proposed Ameiua americana as a replacement name for Lacerta ameiva Linnaeus and this name was listed as the type species of Ameiva by Peters and Donoso-Barros (1970).

Species groups: HARVEY et al. 2012 and other authors grouped the species of the genus Ameiva into several species groups.

Diagnosis (genus): From all other Teiinae, Ameiva can be distinguished by the combination of the following characters: first supraciliary short, third or fourth supraciliary usually elongate (except in A. wetmorei), five regular parietals (except in A.wetmorei), the prefrontal separated from the nasal, small numerous scales at the heel (except in A. lineolata series), homogeneous manual subdigital lamellae, smooth ventrals and subcaudals, and males lacking preanal spurs [from HARVEY et al. 2012]. However, no single character correctly classifies all species from both Ameiva and Cnemidophorus (Burt 1931; Presch 1974, Giugliano et al. 2013).

Diagnosis.—A medium-sized Ameiva distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) maximum SVL in males 174 mm (Avila-Pires, 1995); (2) dorsal head scales smooth; (3) frontal usually single; (4) frontoparietal and parietal plates in contact with interparietals; (5) 19–44 (both sides) scales, usually in single row between supraoculars and supraciliaries; (6) 11–17 occipitals, usually subequal to first dorsal row; (7) 18–32 anterior gulars; (8) middle anterior gulars polygonal and usually distinctly enlarged, less often only moderately enlarged; (9) patch of distinctly enlarged posterior gulars usually present, occasionally only moderately enlarged; (10) 7–16 posterior gulars between antegular and gular folds; (11) enlarged mesoptychial scales subequal or larger than largest gulars; (12) postbrachials moderately to distinctly enlarged; (13) 259– 339 scales between interparietals and base of tail; (14) 129–187 dorsal scales across mid- body; (15) ventrals in 29–32 transverse rows, and 10 longitudinal rows; (16) in life, adult male bicolored: head, arms, and anterior dorsum tan or light brown and posterior dorsum, legs and tail bright green, with pale lateral ocelli; (17) throat in adults cream colored; (18) no vertebral stripe or rows of ocelli across dorsum; (19) juveniles with small paired black spots on dorsum (often faded); pale dorsolateral line (often very indistinct) bordering upper margin of broad black lateral stripe present only on head and anterior dorsum; (20) associated most commonly with forested habitats. 
EtymologyEtymology: unknown fide HARVEY et al. 2012. 
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