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Ameiva bifrontata COPE, 1862

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesAmeiva bifrontata bifrontata COPE 1862
Ameiva bifrontata divisa (FISCHER 1879)
Ameiva bifrontata insulana RUTHVEN 1924 
Common NamesKhaki Ameiva, Cope's Ameiva 
SynonymAmeiva bifrontata COPE 1862: 67
Ameiva bifrontata — BOULENGER 1885: 351
Amiva [sic] bifrontata — COPE 1885: 181
Ameiva bifrontata — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 20
Ameiva bifrontata — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Ameiva bifrontata bifrontata — HARVEY et al. 2012

Ameiva bifrontata divisa (FISCHER 1879)
Cnemidophorus divisus FISCHER 1879: 99
Ameiva divisus — RUTHVEN 1913
Ameiva bifrontata divisa — BURT 1942: 263
Ameiva bifrontata divisa — HARVEY et al. 2012

Ameiva bifrontata insulana RUTHVEN 1924
Ameiva bifrontata insulana — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionN Peru, Colombia (Valle del Cauca), Venezuela, Testigo I, Dutch Leeward I, Margarita I, Aruba I, La Tortuga Island

Type locality: in error (see comment); New Grenada (= Colombia)

divisus: Colombia; Type locality: Baranquilla, Colombia

insulana: restricted to Los Testigos islands.  
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 3657, 9082-83, 9140
Syntypes: ZMH 09545–9 [divisa]
Holotype: MCZ 14025 [insulana] 
CommentSynonymous to Ameiva ameiva (fide BAUER 1995)?

Subspecies after PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970. Ameiva bifrontata concolor RUTHVEN 1924 is now considered as a valid species by most recent authors.

Distribution: the original type locality (St. Thomas, West Indies) is probably in error. Ruthven (1913) and Barbour & Noble (1915: 471) doubt that this species ever occurred on St. Thomas and assume that the type specimens probably came from Venezuela that is represented in Colombia by A. divisus.

Photo: the first photo by Jan Prerost may be in fact A. ameiva (fide G. Ugueto, pers. comm. 10 Feb 2012). 
  • Barbour, T. and G. K. Noble. 1915. A revision of the lizards of the genus Ameiva. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 59: 417-479. - get paper here
  • Blanco-Torres, Argelina; Lina Báez S., Edgar Patiño-Flores, Juan M. Renjifo-R. 2013. Herpetofauna from the middle valley of the Ranchería river, La Guajira, Colombia Rev. Biodivers. Neotrop. 3 (2): 113-22
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1942. Lizards from the Goajira Peninsula, Colombia. Copeia 1942 (4): 263 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1879. Neue oder wenig bekannte Reptilien. Verh. naturwiss. Ver. Hamburg N.F. III: 78-103 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S. R. & Bursey, C. R. 2012. Ameiva bifrontata (Cope's ameiva) endoparasites. Herpetological Review 43: 477
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Hummelinck, P. W. 1940. Studies on the fauna of Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire and the Venezuelan Islands: No. 2. A survey of the mammals, lizards and mollusks. ['Gymnophthalmus laevicaudus: 80]. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands. 1:59—108
  • KOCH, CLAUDIA; PABLO J. VENEGAS, DENNIS RÖDDER, MORRIS FLECKS & WOLFGANG BÖHME 2013. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924. Zootaxa 3745 (2): 263–295 - get paper here
  • Manzanilla, Jesus;Cornieles, Ricardo;Fernandez-Badillo, Alberto 1998. Geographic Distribution. Ameiva bifrontata. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 109-110 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, A. G. 1924. Description of an Ameiva from Testigos Island, Venezuela. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (149): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, Alexander G. 1913. On Ameiva bifrontata Cope and Ameiva divisus (Fischer). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (2): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, Alexander G. 1924. The subspecies of Ameiva bifrontata. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (155): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Schall, J.J. 1973. Relations among three macroteiid lizards on Aruba Island. Journal of Herpetology 7 (3): 289-95 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2006. Die Ernährung von Ameiven und Warantejus in der Natur und bei Terrarienhaltung. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (62): 56-62 - get paper here
  • Valencia, J. H., K. Garzón-Tello & M. E. Barragán-Paladines 2016. Serpientes venenosas del Ecuador: sistemática, taxonomía, historia natural, conservación, envenenamiento y aspectos antropológicos. Quito, Ecuador, Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Universidad de Texas, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, 652 pp. [review in HR 49 (1): 152, 2018]
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
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