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Amphisbaena acangaoba RIBEIRO, GOMIDES & COSTA, 2020

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Helmeted Worm LizardAnfisbena-de-Capacete 
SynonymAmphisbaena acangaoba RIBEIRO, GOMIDES & COSTA 2020 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia)

Type locality: area of Complexo Eo ́ lico Campo Largo (10.47258S, 41.45938W, datum WGS 84, 1,061 m above sea level), municipality of Umburanas, state of Bahia, Brazil  
TypesHolotype: MFCH 4654, Adult male. The specimen was collected on 13 June 2017 by Adrien Bessane.
Paratypes.—Five specimens, MFCH 4652, 4653, 4669, 4670, and 4671, from the type locality; 25 specimens, MFCH 4467, 4479, 4481, 4482, 4486, 4487, 4492, 4495, 4649, 4650, 4651, 4655–4658, 4660–4668, and 4749, from Complexo Eo ́lico Campo Largo, municipality of Sento Se ́, state of Bahia (Tables 1 and 2). The coordinates of each collection site are presented in Appendix 1. 
DiagnosisDefinition. A species of Amphisbaena identified by the following combination of characters: 1) head round, highly domed from rostral to frontal shields, with a prognathous snout terminating in a horizontal edge in dorsal and ventral views; 2) suture lengths: frontal > prefrontal > nasal; 3) precloacal pores, 4–8 (usually six), without median hiatus; 4) body annuli, 216–239; 5) lateral annuli, 2–4; 6) caudal annuli, 13–17; 7) caudal autotomy, absent; 8) tail tip slightly dorsally depressed; 9) dorsal segments, 18–24, and ventral segments, 18–24 at a midbody annulus (38–48 total segments); 10) supralabials, 4; 11) infralabials, 3; 12) parietals variable in size and shape; 13) postoculars, 1 or 2; 14) temporals, 1 or 2; 15) postgenials in 1 or 2 rows; 16) postmalar row present; 17) lateral sulcus present, dorsal and ventral sulci absent; 18) color (in preservative) brown with cream narrow to wide segment sutures on dorsum (sometimes giving a reticulate appearance), becoming paler toward venter, which is immaculate cream after the first to fourth segment below the lateral sulcus; tail brown dorsally and cream ventrally.

Diagnosis: The combination of a round head, 4–8 precloacal pores, 216–239 body annuli, 18–24 dorsal and 18–24 ventral segments at a midbody annulus, distinguishes A. acangaoba sp. nov. from other South American amphisbaenians, except A. angustifrons, A. borelli, A. brasiliana, A. fuliginosa, A. leucocephala, A. mertensii, A. plumbea, A. pretrei, A. spurrelli, and A. vermicularis. Amphisbaena borelli, A. fuliginosa, A. leucocephala, A. pretrei, and A. spurrelli, however, present three supralabials (four in A. acangaoba sp. nov.). The number of caudal annuli (13–17) further distinguishes A. acangaoba sp. nov. from A. fuliginosa (20–30), A. leucocephala (25–29), A. mertensii (25–32), A. pretrei (21– 26), A. spurrelli (18–20), and A. vermicularis (25–35). Amphisbaena angustifrons and A. brasiliana share with A. acangaoba sp. nov. the absence of autotomic caudal annuli, although having a rounded tail tip (slightly dorsally compressed in A. acangaoba sp. nov.). Amphisbaena acangaoba sp. nov. further differs from A. angustifrons, A. fuliginosa, A. leucocephala, A. mertensii, A. pretrei, A. spurrelli, and A. vermicularis by the head highly domed (not highly domed in those species). Finally, the precloacal pores sequentially arranged distinguish A. acangaoba sp. nov. from A. brasiliana (pores interrupted by non-pore–bearing segments). 
CommentSympatry: A. kiriri 
EtymologyIn the Tupi indigenous language, acangaoba is a head ornament, a ‘‘helmet’’ or ‘‘cap’’ by neologism (D’Abbeville, 1945; Barbosa, 1970). Used here as a noun in apposition, the name acangaoba refers to the highly domed head of the new species, in the region formed by the nasal, prefrontal, and frontal scales. 
  • Ribeiro, Leonardo B.; Samuel C. Gomides, and Henrique C. Costa 2020. A New Worm Lizard Species (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae: Amphisbaena) with Non-autotomic Tail, from Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 54 (1): 9-18 - get paper here
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