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Amphisbaena angustifrons COPE, 1861

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: South American Worm Lizard 
SynonymAmphisbaena angustifrons COPE 1861
Amphisbaena knighti PARKER 1928: 383
Amphisbaena angustifrons — GANS 1965: 13
Amphisbaena angustifrons — CEI 1993
Amphisbaena angustifrons — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 2000
Amphisbaena angustifrons — GANS 2005: 11
Amphisbaena angustifrons — CACCIALI et al. 2016
Amphisbaena angustifrons — MONTERO 2016 
DistributionC and N Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, Tarija)

Type locality: Buenos Aires, Argentina  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 9690.
Holotype: BMNH 1928.5.2.1-RR1946.8.31.76, paratypes: BMNH [knighti] 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS: A medium to large-sized species of Amphisbaena, with the post-rostral head shields paired and without major fusions of head shields; with an elongate, acutely pointed head, terminating in a narrow, faintly spatulate tip, and with a short, conically reduced tail that lacks an autotomy annulus and cannot be autotomized. Specimens have 190 to 215 (occasionally to 253) body annuli; 12 to 18 caudal annuli; and means of 20 to 31 dorsal and 21 to 30 ventral segments to a midbody annulus. Four, rarely three, five, or six precloacal pores. Living specimens brownish above, lighter below, with reddish purple overtones. Pigmentation appearing concentrated along anterior portions of segments which are otherwise evenly colored. (Gans 1965) 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “angustus, -a, -um” = narrow, and Latin “frons”, “frontis” = forehead. 
  • Almeida JPFA De, De Freitas MA, Da Silva MB, Valverde MCC, Rodrigues MT, Pires AM, Mott T. 2018. A new four-pored Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 4514 (4): 553-562. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4514.4.8. - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Some remarks defining the following species of Reptilia Squamata. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861: 75-76 - get paper here
  • Costa HC, Welton LJ, Hallermann J 2018. An updated diagnosis of the rare Amphisbaena slateri Boulenger, 1907, based on additional specimens (Squamata, Amphisbaenia, Amphisbaenidae). Evolutionary Systematics 2(2): 125-135 - get paper here
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215 - get paper here
  • Gallardo, Jose M. 1966. Liolaemus lentus nov. Sp. (Iguanidae) de la Pampa y Algunas observaciones sobre los saurios de picha provincia Argentina y del oeste de Buenos Aires. Neotropica 12 (37): 15-29
  • Gallardo, José M. 1969. Las especies de saurios (Reptilia) de la Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, y consideraciones sobre su ecologia y zoogeografia. Neotropica 15 (47): 73-81
  • Gans, C. 1965. Notes on amphisbaenids (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). 17. A redescription and discussion of Amphisbaena angustifrons Cope and Amphisbaena camura Cope of southern South America. American Museum Novitates (2225): 1-32. - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 2005. CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE AMPHISBAENIA OF THE WORLD. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 289: 1-130 - get paper here
  • Gans, C., & Diefenbach, C.O. da C. 1972. Description and geographical variation of the South American Amphisbaena angustifrons: the southernmost amphisbaenian in the world (Reptilia, Amphisbaenia). American Museum Novitates (2494): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Gans, C., G.C. Huang & H.F. Clark 1967. The Diphyletism of the Amphisbaenia (Reptilia): A Re-Evaluation Based upon Chromosome Counts Copeia 1967 (2): 485-487. - get paper here
  • Hellmich, Walter 1960. Die Sauria des Gran Chaco und seiner Randgebiete. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse (101): 1-131
  • Montero, Ricardo 2016. On the Validity of Several Argentinian Species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae). Journal of Herpetology 50 (4): 642-653 - get paper here
  • Parker, H.W. 1928. A new species of lizard from Argentina. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 2: 383-384 - get paper here
  • PEREZ, RENATA; SÍRIA RIBEIRO & MÁRCIO BORGES-MARTINS 2012. Reappraisal of the taxonomic status of Amphisbaena prunicolor (Cope 1885) and Amphisbaena albocingulata Boettger 1885 (Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae). Zootaxa 3550: 1–25 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2002. AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF AMPHISBAENA (SQUAMATA, AMPHISBAENIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 42(15):351-362 - get paper here
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