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Amphisbaena carvalhoi GANS, 1965

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Carvalho Worm Lizard
Portuguese: Cobra-de-Duas-Cabeças, Cobra-Cega 
SynonymAmphisbaena carvalhoi GANS 1965: 625
Amphisbaena carvalhoi — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 30
Amphisbaena carvalhoi — GANS 2005: 12 
DistributionBrazil (Pernambuco)

Type locality: Pocão, Serra de Acahy, Municipio de Pesqueira, Pernambuco, Brazil, 1035 m. elevation.  
TypesHolotype: MNRJ R2095. Paratypes: MNRJ R1759, R2093, 2094, R2096–2098, SU 17289,17290. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A very small form of Amphishaena without major fusions of liead shields, with slightly enlarged first parietals, with three supra- and three infralabials; and with two postgenial and no postmalar rows. The head is slightly compressed dorsoventrally, noticeably set off from the neck and bears a regular segmentation pattern. The form has 231 to 245 body annuli; 7 to 8 caudal annuli up to the autotomy constriction (all tails are complete); 19 to 22 caudal annuli from the cloaca to the conical caudal spine; 12 to 14 dorsal and 16 to 18, generally 18, ventral segments to a midbody annulus; and four clearly expressed, small, round precloacal pores in both sexes. The color of preserved specimens is brown dorsally, fading out ventrally on the trunk. The nape and parietal aspects of the head and the dorsal surface of the tail are slightly darker. The lightened area extends across the sui)ralabials and the rostral region. Pigmentation consists of a general coloration of the dorsal segments, emphasized on the rectangular segmental centers. Laterally the margins fade, the rectangles decrease in size, and segmental drop out occurs. (Gans 1965: 625) 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Antenor Leitao de Carvalho (1910-1985), a Brazilian herpetologist and ichthyologist, specialized in frogs. He became Curator of Herpetology (1941) and, eventually Vice Director of the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 1965. On Amphisbaena heathi Schmidt and A. carvalhoi, new species, small forms from the northeast of Brazil (Amphisbaenia: Reptilia). [Notes on amphisbaenids 16]. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 31 (23): 613-630. - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 2005. CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE AMPHISBAENIA OF THE WORLD. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 289: 1-130 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 1974. Ecological and geographical distribution of lizards in Pernambuco, northeastern Brasil (Sauria). Papeis Avulsos de Zool. 28(4): 61-90. - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2002. AN AID TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF AMPHISBAENA (SQUAMATA, AMPHISBAENIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 42(15):351-362 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini,P.E. 1991. Two new small species of Amphisbaena from the fossil dune field of the middle Rio São Francisco, State of Bahia, Brasil (Reptilia, Amphisbaenia). Pap. Avul. Univ. Sao Paulo. 37 (17): 259-276
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