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Amphisbaena fuliginosa LINNAEUS, 1758

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Higher TaxaAmphisbaenidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata 
Common NamesE: Speckled Worm Lizard
D: Gefleckte Doppelschleiche
NL: Gevlekte wormhagedis 
SynonymAmphisbaena fuliginosa LINNAEUS 1758: 229
Amphisbaena vulgaris LAURENTI 1768: 66
Amphisbaena magnifica LAURENTI 1768: 66
Amphisbaena flava LAURENTI 1768: 67
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 480
Amphisbaena americana GRAY 1844: 70
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — GÜNTHER 1885: 31
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — DUELLMAN 1978: 224
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — STARACE 1998: 53
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Amphisbaena fuliginosa fuliginosa — VANZOLINI 2002
Amphisbaena fuliginosa — GANS 2005: 14 
DistributionColombia (Valle del Cauca), Venezuela (Falcon, Trinidad), Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad, Brazil (Ceará), Peru (Manu NP)

Type locality: “America” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesSyntypes: NRM (Stockholm Museum), ZMUU (Uppsala Museum, Andersson, 1899: 7). 
CommentSynonymy mostly after GANS 1967 and GANS 2005.

Subspecies: all subspecies previously recognized have been elevated to full species status.

Distribution: records from areas outside the given distribution have been assigned to forms that were considered as subspecies previously,i.e. records from Panama, Peru (Tambopata, Madre de Dios: [HR 31: 188]), Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil (Pará: [HR 31: 253], Goiás), Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz).

Type species: Amphisbaena fuliginosa is the type species of the genus Amphisbaena LINNAEUS 1758.

Diagnoses: Table SI in Costa et al. 2015 has morphological diagnostic characters of two-pored and three-pored South American Amphisbaena species.

Size: SVL 130–450 mm. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin adjective “fuliginosus” meaning brown or dark brown colouration. 
  • Brongersma, L. D. 1932. Abnorme Beschilderung des Kopfes bei Amphisbaenen. Zool. Anz. 99 (5/6): 132-134
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Chalkidis, Hipócrates de Menezes, Ana Cristina, Cordeiro-Duarte and Richard C. Vogt 2002. Geographic distribution. Amphisbaena fuliginosa fuliginosa. Herpetological Review 33 (2):148 - get paper here
  • CISNEROS-HEREDIA, D. F. 2005. Predation upon Amphisbaena fuliginosa LINNAEUS, 1758 by Micrurus ancoralis (JAN, 1872) [Short Note]. Herpetozoa 18: 93- 94 - get paper here
  • Claessen, H. 2006. De Slangen van de Guyana’s. Deel XI. Lacerta 64 (4): 136-146 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Cortés Gómez, Angela María; Anyelet Valencia Aguilar, Diana Marcela Torres Domínguez, Lina María García Calderón, Diego Fernando Villaquirán Martínez, Andrea del Pilar Cáceres Franco, Fernando Castro Herrera 2010. Guía de los anfibios y reptiles. Área en conservación de la microcuenca Quebrada Pericos. [Valle de Cauca, Colombia]. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca, Santiago de Cali: CVC, 37 pp. - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique C; Flávia C. Resende , Mauro Teixeira Jr. , Francisco Dal Vechio , Cinara A. Clemente 2015. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 87(2): 891-901 - get paper here
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Falcione, Camila and Alejandra Hernando 2010. A new karyotypic formula for the genus Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae). Phyllomedusa 9 (1): 75-80 - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 2005. CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE AMPHISBAENIA OF THE WORLD. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 289: 1-130
  • Gans, Carl 1967. A check list of recent amphisbaenians (Amphisbaenia, Reptilia). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 135:61-106.
  • Gans,C. 1957. “Anguimorph” toot replacement in Amphisbaena alba Linnaeus 1758, and A. fuliginosa Linnaeus, 1758 (Reptilia: Amphisbaenidae). Breviora (70): 1-12 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, Marinus S.; Roberta R. Pinto, Wáldima Alves da Rocha, and Emiliane G. Pereira 2009. A NEW SPECIES OF MESOBAENA MERTENS, 1925 (SQUAMATA: AMPHISBAENIDAE) FROM BRAZILIAN GUIANA, WITH A KEY TO THE AMPHISBAENIDAE OF THE GUIANAN REGION. Herpetologica 65 (4): 436 - get paper here
  • Lacepède, B. G. E. 1803. Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares et de Serpens. Vol. 3. Paris: Chez Saugrain, 350 pp. - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Lemos, F.G. & Facure, K.G. 2007. New record of Amphisbaena fuliginosa (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae) for the Cerrado Biome, in an area of extensive cattle ranching. Biota Neotrop. 7 (1) - get paper here
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Menezes Chalkidis, Hipócrates de 2000. Geographic distribution. Amphisbaena fuliginosa varia. Herpetological Review 31 (4): 253. - get paper here
  • Rhodes, C. 1963. On Amphisbaena fuliginosa Linné from Bolivia. Herpetologica 19 (3): 175-178. - get paper here
  • Ribeiro, S. C., I. J. Roberto, D. L. Sales, R. W. Ávila & W. O. Almeida 2012. Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48 (3): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro, S.; Vaz-Silva, W. & Santos Jr, A.P. 2008. New pored Leposternon (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) from Brazilian Cerrado. Zootaxa 1930: 18–38 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • ROBERTO, IGOR JOVENTINO; LUCAS B. M. BRITO, & ROBSON W. ÁVILA 2014. A new six-pored Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from the coastal zone of northeast Brazil. Zootaxa 3753 (2): 167–176 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1952. Colección de reptiles del Profesor Scorza, de Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 1 (5): 93-114
  • Scrocchi, G. & L. GONZÁLES 1996. Informe sobre la herpetofauna del Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, Santa Cruz - Bolivia. Consorcio FAN-TNC, Santa Cruz. 32 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • VANZOLINI, PAULO EMILIO 2002. A second note on the geographical differentiation of Amphisbaena fuliginosa L., 1758 (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), with a consideration of the forest refuge model of speciation. An. Acad. Bras. Cinc. 74 (4):609-648 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini,P.E. 1951. Amphisbaena fuliginosa. Contribution to the knowledge of the Brazilian lizards of the family Amphisbaenidae Gray, 1825. 6. On the geographical distribution and differentiation of Amphisbaena fuliginosa Linné. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 106 (1): 1-67. - get paper here
  • Vitt, L.; Magnusson, W.E.; Ávila-Pires, T.C. & Lima, A.P. 2008. Guide to the Lizards of Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Central Amazonia. Attema, Manaus, 180 pp.
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