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Andinosaura afrania (ARREDONDO & SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO, 2010)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymRiama afrania ARREDONDO & SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO 2010
Andinosaura afrania — SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017 
DistributionN Colombia (Antioquia)

Type locality: Valle Real, 13 km northeast on Urrao- Caicedo road (6° 22’57’’N, 76°4’26’’W), Municipio de Urrao, Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, 2,350 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: CSJ (was MHNCSJ) 1048, Adult male. Collected 28 December 1989 by Marco A. Serna, A. Gómez, and M. Pérez. Paratypes: (N = 10) MHNCSJ, ICN-MHN (= ICN-R) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: (1) Frontonasal slightly shorter than frontal; (2) nasoloreal suture complete or absent, usually complete; (3) supraoculars four; (4) superciliary series complete (4 or 5), or incomplete (1 + 2, 1 + 3, or 2 + 2), if incomplete, only second supraocular interrupts supercili- aries; (5) palpebral disc divided; (6) supralabial– subocular fusion absent; (7) postoculars two; (8) postparietals two; (9) supratympanic temporals three; (10) genials two or three; (11) dorsal scales rectangular, juxtaposed, smooth; (12) longitudinal dorsal scale rows 15; (13) transverse dorsal scale rows in males 38–42, in females 38–41; (14) transverse ventral scale rows in males 21–23, 22 in females; (15) lateral scale rows 6–9; (16) femoral pores per hind limb in males 7–9, in females one; scales between femoral pores two; (17) supradigital scales above Finger IV 6–7, subdigital scales under Finger IV 10–12; supradigital scales above Toe IV 10–11, subdigital scales under Toe IV 14–16; (18) limbs not overlapping or just touching when adpressed against the body; (19) anterior cloacal plate scales two and posterior five; (20); hemipenis capitate; flounces bearing calcified spines, in two columns that do not converge on the asulcate side; (21) hemipenis head with two smooth, rounded, and symmetrical lobes, with a single medial appendix connecting the lobes through a triple foldlike W-shape; (22) dorsal surface of the body dark brown with small white spots, without ocelli; (23) ventral scales in males dark brown with large white blotches, and in females cream with irregular dark brown blotches. Riama afrania can be distinguished from congeners by the following characteristics [con- dition for R. afrania in brackets]. All known Colombian Riama: The new species shares the condition of smooth dorsal scales with R. laevis and R. simotera (at least anteriorly). Riama laevis has 11 longitudinal dorsal scale rows [15], eight longitudinal ventral scale rows [10], 18–19 transverse ventral scale rows in males [21–23 in males and 22 in females], limbs large, overlapping extensively when adpressed against the body [not overlapping], and dorsum dark brown with ocelli [dorsum dark brown with small white spots, without ocelli]. Riama simotera has 6–7 femoral pores per hind limb in males and 5–7 in females [7–9 in males, one in females], usually two supratympanic temporals [three], and 1–2 lateral scale rows [6–9]. Riama columbiana has 23–33 longitudinal dorsal scale rows [15], keeled dorsal scales [smooth], ventrals cream with a diffuse brown spot in the center forming regular longitudinal rows of dark spots [males with ventrals dark brown with large white blotches, and females with ventrals cream with irregular dark brown blotches not centered], dorsum dark brown with lateral ocelli [dark brown with small white spots], and femoral pores in males 9–10 [7–9]. Riama striata has striated dorsal scales [smooth], nasoloreal suture usually absent [usually present], and dorsolateral pale stripes with dark edges [dorsum dark brown with small white spots]. Riama stellae has rugose dorsal and ventral scales [smooth], 31–32 transverse dorsal scale rows [38–42], limbs overlapping when ad- pressed against the body [not overlapping], dorsum brown without black spots [dorsum dark brown with small white spots], and venter yellowish cream without dark spots [dark brown with large white blotches in males, and cream with irregular dark brown blotches not centered in females]. All Ecuadorian and Peruvian Riama (Riama anatoloros, Riama balneator, Riama cashcaensis, Riama colomaromani, Riama hyposticta, Riama labionis, Riama laudahnae, Riama meleagris, Riama oculata, Riama orcesi, Riama petrorum, Riama raneyi, Riama stigmatoral, Riama unicolor, Riama vieta, and Riama vespertina), except R. meleagris, possess striated/keeled dorsal scales [smooth]. In R. anatoloros, R. cashcaensis, R. labionis, and R. meleagris, the frontonasal is longer than or equal in length to the frontal [shorter]. In R. labionis and R. laudahnae, supralabial-subocular fusion is present [absent]. Riama balneator has 27–28 longitudinal dorsal scale rows, R. cashcaensis 24–29, and R. laudahnae 37 [15]. Riama hyposticta has 30–35 transverse dorsal scale rows, R. laudahnae 20, R. petrorum 31–33, R. vespertina 34, and R. vieta 29–32 [38–42]. Riama colomar- omani has 18–19 transverse ventral scale rows [21–23]. Males of R. balneator have 11 femoral pores per hind limb, and females have one, males of R. labionis have 10–12, and females have 1–6; males of R. meleagris have 9–12 [7–9 in males, 1 in females]. In R. hyposticta, R. oculata, and R. vieta, limbs overlap when adpressed against the body [not overlapping]. Riama laudahnae, R. raneyi, and R. vespertina have three supraoculars [four]. Riama anatoloros and R. balneator have three or four postparietals [two]. In R. meleagris, the anterior cloacal plate scales are absent or comprises one small scale [two scales]. All congeners from Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago (R. achlyens, Riama inanis, R. luctuosa, Riama rhodogaster, and R. shrevei) have keeled/striate dorsal scales [smooth]. Riama afrania has more transverse dorsal scale rows [38–42] than R. inanis (29–34), R. rhodoga- ster (34), and R. shrevei (33–37); more transverse ventral scale rows [21–22] than R. achlyens (17– 19) and R. inanis (14–18); fewer femoral pores per hind limb in males [7–9] than R. inanis (11– 12), R. luctuosa (13–15), and R. shrevei (14–16); and more longitudinal ventral scale rows [10] than R. achlyens (6–8). Riama inanis has a single superciliary scale [3–5]; R. rhodogaster has three supraoculars [four]; and R. shrevei exhibits overlapping of limbs when adpressed against the body [not overlapping] [from ARREDONDO & SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO 2010]. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a noun in the genitive case and patronym for Afranio Ortiz, who was the collection manager in the MHNCSJ. He is an enthusiastic naturalist whose principal motivation is to teach and help without any compensation. 
  • Arredondo, Juan Camilo and Santiago J. Sánchez-Pacheco 2010. New Endemic Species of Riama (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Northern Colombia. Journal of Herpetology 44 (4): 610–617 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, S. J., Torres-Carvajal, O., Aguirre-Peñafiel, V., Sales-Nunes, P. M., Verrastro, L., Rivas, G. A., Rodrigues, M. T., Grant, T. and Murphy, R. W. 2017. Phylogeny of Riama (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), impact of phenotypic evidence on molecular datasets, and the origin of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta endemic fauna. Cladistics, doi:10.1111/cla.12203 [print: 2018] - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, Santiago J.; David A. Kizirian, and Pedro M. Sales-Nunes 2011. A New Species of Riama from Ecuador Previously Referred to as Riama hyposticta (Boulenger, 1902) (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). American Museum Novitates (3719): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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