Andinosaura crypta (SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO, KIZIRIAN & SALES-NUNES, 2011)
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|Higher Taxa||Gymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)|
|Synonym||Riama crypta SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO, KIZIRIAN & SALES NUNES 2011|
Proctoporus hypostictus BOULENGER 1902
Proctoporus hypostictus — HILLIS 1985: 109–126
Proctoporus hypostictus — KIZIRIAN & COLOMA 1991: 428 (part)
Proctoporus hypostictus — KIZIRIAN, 1995:72 (part)
Proctoporus hypostictus — KIZIRIAN 1996: 108 (part)
Proctoporus hypostictus — DOAN 2003: 372
Riama hyposticta — DOAN & CASTOE 2005: 409
Andinosaura crypta — SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017
|Distribution||Ecuador (western slopes of the Cordillera Occidental)|
Type locality: Pilaló, Cotopaxi, Ecuador, 2320–2700 m elevation
|Reproduction||oviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022)|
|Types||Holotype: KU 135103|
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis (Andinosaura) : All unambiguously optimized synapomorphies for this clade are from DNA sequences. Phenotypic synapomorphies are not known. Other characteristics include: (1) head scales usually smooth (slightly rugose in A. vieta and A. stel- lae); (2) frontoparietal and parietal scales paired; (3) interparietal, frontal and frontonasal scales single; (4) prefrontal scales usually absent (occasionally present in specimens of A. stellae); (5) lower eyelid divided into several scales; (6) loreal scale absent or present; (7) scale organs on labials present; (8) anteriormost supraocular and anteriormost superciliary scales unfused; (9) dorsal surface of the tongue covered in scale-like papillae; (10) nuchal scales smooth in most species (rugose in A. stellae and A. vieta); (11) dorsal body scales rectangular; smooth, keeled (low, rounded keel), striated (shal- low furrows) or rugose; (12) ventral body scales smooth (rugose in A. stellae and A. vieta); (13) limbs pentadactyl; digits clawed; (14) femoral pores in males present, in females absent or present; and (15) hemipenial lobes large, distinct from hemipenial body.|
Andinosaura differs from Riama by having hemipenial lobes large, distinct from hemipenial body. It differs from Oreosaurus by having a narrow band of differentiated granular lateral scales. [SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017].
Riama crypta differs principally from Riama hyposticta by an incomplete superciliary series, formed just by the anteriormost superciliary scale (superciliary series complete in R. hyposticta, formed by five or six scales), no nasoloreal suture [= loreal absent] (complete [= loreal present] in R. hyposticta), distinct dorsolateral stripes at least anteriorly (scattered brown spots dorsally without dorsolateral stripes in R. hyposticta), and ventral coloration composed of small cream or brown spots or longitudinal stripes (dark brown with conspicuous transverse white bars and spots). Additionally, both species have distal filiform appendages on the hemipenial lobes.
Diagnosis: Riama crypta can be distinguished from R. hyposticta by the following (condi- tion for R. hyposticta in parentheses): frontonasal shorter than frontal (equal to or slightly longer than frontal); nasoloreal suture usually absent [= loreal absent], exceptionally complete (complete [= loreal present]); superciliary series incomplete, formed by just the anteriormost scale (complete, five or six scales); distinct dorsolateral stripe present at least anteriorly (dor- sally with scattered brown spots) and ventral coloration composed of small cream or brown spots or longitudinal narrow stripes (dark brown with conspicuous transverse white bars and spots [yellow in life]); maximum SVL in males 69 mm (82 mm).
In addition, Riama crypta (characters in parentheses) can be distinguished from Ecuador- ian and Peruvian congeners by meristic characters. Riama anatoloros, R. balneator, R. oculata, R. orcesi, R. simotera, R. stigmatoral, R. unicolor, R. vespertina, R. laudahnae, and R. vieta have two or more (one) superciliaries. All known specimens of Riama meleagris and R. petrorum have just the anteriormost superciliary scale. From these species, Riama crypta can be distin- guished by the following: R. meleagris has the frontonasal distinctly longer than, or equal to, frontal (shorter than frontal), the dorsal scales smooth (keeled) and two (three) genials; R. petrorum has two (three) genials, and the dorsal scales striated (keeled). Most of the known specimens of Riama cashcaensis, R. labionis, and R. raneyi and some of R. colomaromani have just the anteriormost superciliary scale. From these species, Riama crypta can be distinguished by the following: R. cashcaensis has the frontonasal much longer than frontal (shorter than frontal), and two or three (4–7) lateral scale rows; R. labionis has the supralabial-subocular fusion present (absent), and two (three) supratympanic temporals; R. raneyi has two or three supraoculars, usually three (four) and the frontonasal distinctly longer than to equal to frontal (shorter than frontal); R. colomaromani has two (three) genials and 22–32 (13–18) longitudinal dorsal scale rows; R. vieta has the dorsal scales rugose (keeled), and 8–10 (4–7) femoral pores per hind limb in males.
Similarly, Riama crypta can be distinguished from congeners occurring in Colombia, Venezuela, and the island of Trinidad, except Riama inanis, by the following (condition for R. crypta in parentheses): superciliaries two or more (one). Riama inanis has two (three) genials and the dif- ferentiated lateral scales absent or with a single, irregular row present (lateral scale rows 4–7).
|Comment||This taxon was formerly referred to as Riama hyposticta, a rare species described on the basis of an adult male from northern Ecuador and here recorded from southwestern Colombia. |
Type species: Riama crypta is the type species of the genus Andinosaura SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017.
|Etymology||Andinosaura (gender feminine), formed from the Spanish Andino (from the Andes) and the Latin Sauria (lizard), in reference to its distribution. The suffix is used commonly for gymnophthalmid genera.|
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