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Andinosaura vespertina (KIZIRIAN, 1996)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymProctoporus vespertinus KIZIRIAN 1996
Proctoporus vespertinus — DOAN & SCHARGEL 2003
Riama vespertina — DOAN & CASTOE 2005
Andinosaura vespertina — SÁNCHEZ-PACHECO et al. 2017 
DistributionEcuador (Loja)

Type locality: Chitogué, Loja, elevation 6000 ft = 1820 m  
TypesHolotype: AMNH 22130 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Riama vespertina can be distinguished from its congeners, except R. kiziriani, by the presence of two anteriorly and one posteriorly positioned superciliary scales. it can be distinguished from R. kiziriani by the following characteristics (condition for R. kiziriani in parentheses): femoral pores per hind limb in males 4-5 (seven); and venter cream – yellowish in life – with faint brown spots on central portion of scales (ventral coloration in males dark brown to black with small white spots or narrow lines on longitudinal sutures).
in addition, among the other four species of Ri‐ ama currently known to occur in southern ecuador, R. vespertina differs from R. anatoloros in having two postparietals (three in R. anatoloros) and 4-5 femoral pores per hind limb in males (7-11). it differs from R. stigmatoral in having three supraoculars (four in R. stigmatoral), 4-5 femoral pores per hind limb in males (9-11) and 6-10 scales between medialmost femoral pores in males (0-2). it can be distinguished from R. petrorum by the second supraocular contacting the ciliaries (second, third and fourth, or first, second and third in contact with ciliaries in R. petrorum) and by the number of transverse dorsal scale rows in males, 34-35 (33) and in females, 34-36 (31-33); it further differs from R. petrorum in adult body size (maximum known svL in R. vespertina is about 66 mm for males and 68 mm for females, versus 72 mm and 76 mm for males and females, respectively, of R. petrorum). from R. aurea, R. vespertina differs in having three supraoculars (four in R. aurea) (Sanchez-Pacheco et al. 2012: 267). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, vespertinus, is a Latin adjective meaning "of the west" and alludes to the distribution of this species. Proctoporus vespertinus is the westernmost species of Proctoporus, occurring closest to the 80th meridian. 
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2005. Phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cercosaurini (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with new genera for species of Neusticurus and Proctoporus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143: 405–416. - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. 2003. A south-to-north biogeographic hypothesis for Andean speciation: evidence from the lizard genus Proctoporus (Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Biogeography 30: 361–374 - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. & Schargel, W.E. 2003. Bridging the gap in Proctoporus distribution: a new species (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes of Venezuela. Herpetologica 59 (1): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Kizirian, D. A. 1996. A review of Ecuadorian Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Herpetological Monographs 10: 85-155 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, S. , Aguirre-Peñafiel, V. , Torres-Carvajal, O. 2012. Lizards of the genus Riama (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): the diversity in southern Ecuador revisited. South American J. Herp. 7 (3): 259-275 - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, S. J., Torres-Carvajal, O., Aguirre-Peñafiel, V., Sales-Nunes, P. M., Verrastro, L., Rivas, G. A., Rodrigues, M. T., Grant, T. and Murphy, R. W. 2017. Phylogeny of Riama (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), impact of phenotypic evidence on molecular datasets, and the origin of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta endemic fauna. Cladistics, doi:10.1111/cla.12203 [print: 2018] - get paper here
  • Sánchez-Pacheco, Santiago J.; David A. Kizirian, and Pedro M. Sales-Nunes 2011. A New Species of Riama from Ecuador Previously Referred to as Riama hyposticta (Boulenger, 1902) (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). American Museum Novitates (3719): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
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