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Anisolepis undulatus (WIEGMANN, 1834)

IUCN Red List - Anisolepis undulatus - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaLeiosauridae, Iguania, Sauria (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesWiegmann's Tree Lizard 
SynonymLaemanctus undulatus WIEGMANN 1834: 46
Ecphymotes undulatus - FITZINGER 1826
Laemanctus ondulatus - DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 75 (lapsus)
Lamanctus (Urostrophus) undulatus FITZINGER 1843 (fide CEI 1993)
Anisolepis Iheringii BOULENGER 1885: 86
Anisolepis iheringii — BOULENGER 1885: 122
Anisolepis undulatus — BOULENGER 1886: 426
Anisolepis bruchi KOSLOWSKY 1895
Anisolepis undulatus — WERNER 1896: 471
Anisolepis undulatus - ETHERIDGE & WILLIAMS 1991 
DistributionS Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), EC Argentina (Buenos Aires), Uruguay (Paysandú)

Type locality: Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: Zool. Mus. Berlin (ZMB) No. 497 
CommentSynonymy mostly following ETHERIDGE & WILLIAMS 1991 and CEI 1993. BOULENGER 1886 synonymized Laemanctus obtusirostris with A. undulatus.

Type species: Anisolepis iheringi BOULENGER 1885 [= Laemanctus undulatus WIEGMANN 1834] is the type species of the genus Anisolepis BOULENGER 1885.

Diagnosis (genus): Anisolepis is a member of the iguanian family Polychridae, diagnosed by the acquisition of endolymphatic sacs that extend back between the supraoccipital and parietal bones into the dorsal neck musculature and other synapomorphies (Frost and Etheridge, 1989). It differs from Polychrus in having lost femoral pores, from the leiosaurs (Enyalius, Pristidactylus, Diplolaemus, Leiosaurus, Aperopristis) in having reduced the number of sternal rib pairs from 4 to 3 and in lacking longitudinally divided distal subdigital scales, and from the anoles (Anolis, Chamaeolis, Phenacosaurus, Chamaelinorops) in having acquired a small posterior coracoid fenestra, and in lacking elongate second ceratobranchials and an anole type digital pad. Anisolepis differs from Urostrophus in having keeled ventral scales, and posterior marginal tooth crowns with tapered sides and reduced secondary cusps. Etheridge and de Queiroz (1988) listed as derived characters shared by Anisolepis undulatus, A. grilli, and Aptycholaemus longicauda the reduction in secondary cusps of the marginal tooth crowns, loss of the posterolateral processes of the basisphenoid, and the acquisition of a ventrolateral row of enlarged scales and ventral body scales with sharp keels in parallel rows. Aptycholaemus was diagnosed by loss of the transverse gular fold, elongation of the tail, and reduction of the external ear. However, there are no derived features known to be shared by undulatus and grilli to the exclusion of longicauda, and therefore no evidence that undulatus and grilli share a more recent common ancestor with each other than with longicauda. Accordingly we here place Aptycholaemus Boulenger 1891 in the synonymy of Anisolepis Boulenger 1885. Thus constituted, Anisolepis is probably monophyletic [from Etheridge & Williams 1991].

Etymology (genus): From the Greek “anisos” meaning unequal and “lepis” meaning scale, with reference to the heterogeneity of the squamation.

Diagnosis (species): A. undulatus differs from A. grilli and A. longicauda in having a more distinctively heterogeneous scalation: dorsal body scales abruptly larger than, rather than grading into lateral body scales, nape with enlarged erect scales, and a conspicuous dorsolateral row of large, keeled scales. It further differs from A. grilli in having uni- or multicarinate supradigital scales on the hand, the keeled ventral body scales in 13 to 19 rather than 17 to 25 rows, and a smaller maximum adult size (females 83 mm, males 70 mm, versus females 97 mm, males 79 mm). It further differs from A. longicauda in having an external ear opening larger than, rather than conspicuously smaller than, the interparietal scale, an antehumeral- transverse gular fold, and a shorter tail (mean tail/total in males 73, females 71, versus males 77, females 74) [from Etheridge & Williams 1991].

Etymology (species): Named undulatus because of the zig-zag dorsal pattern.

Distribution: for a map see ETHERIDGE & WILLIAMS 1991: 338. 
References
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1885. Second list of reptiles and batrachians from the province Rio Grande do Sul, sent to the Natural History Museum by Dr. H. van Ihering. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16: 85-88 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R; Williams E E 1991. A review of the South American lizard genera Urostrophus and Anisolepis (Squamata: Iguania: Polychridae). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool 152(5) 1991: 317-361 - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1895. Dos nuevas Lagartijas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Rev. Mus. La Plata 6: 417-420 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Prigioni, C.; C. Borteiro; F. Kolenc. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia, Quebrada de los Cuervos, Departamento de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Check List 7 (6): 763-767 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1896. Die Iguaniden-Gattung Anisolepis Blngr. Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 46: 470-473
  • Wiegmann,A.F.A. 1834. Herpetologia Mexicana, seu descriptio amphibiorum novae hispaniae , quae itineribus comitis de Sack, Ferdinandi Deppe et Chr. Guil. Schiede im Museum Zoologicum Berolinense Pervenerunt. Pars prima, saurorum species. Berlin, Lüderitz, iv + 54 pp. - get paper here
 
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