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Anniella grinnelli PAPENFUSS & PARHAM, 2013

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Higher TaxaAnguidae (Anniellinae),
Diploglossa, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Bakersfield Legless Lizard 
SynonymAnniella grinnelli PAPENFUSS & PARHAM 2013
Anniella pulchra lineage C — PARHAM & PAPENFUSS 2009 
DistributionUSA (California: southern San Joaquin Valley and the east side of the Carrizo Plain)

Type locality: 35.3054°N, 118.8013°W (254 m elevation; Figs. 1, 4), Jack Zaninovich Memorial Nature Trail, Sand Ridge Preserve, Kern County, California, USA.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: MVZ 257714, collected on April 11, 2007, by James F. Parham and Theodore J. Papenfuss. Paratypes. CAS 234253, an adult male, CAS 234254 and 234255, both adult females, from 35.3894°N, 119.0697°W (130 m elev.), in a field 0.8 km N of Rosedale Hwy. by Fruitvale Ave then 0.3 km E of the end of Price Way, Bakersfield, Kern County, California, collected on February 1, 2006, by James F. Parham and Theodore J. Papenfuss; MCZ R- 189378, R-189379, adult males from 35.3900°N, 119.0608°W (125 m elev.), 0.65 km N of Rosedale Hwy. by Landco Dr., then 0.15 km W at end of Gilmore Ave., Bakersfield, Kern County, California, col- lected on April 21, 2010, by Theodore J. Papenfuss; MVZ 247487 (Fig. 3), an adult, not sexed, from 35.3894°N, 119.0697°W (120 m elev.) in a field 0.8 km N of Rosedale Hwy. by Fruitvale Ave then 0.3 km E of the end of Price Way, Bakersfield, Kern County, California, U.S.A., collected on April 27, 2002, by Theodore J. Papenfuss; MVZ 250546 (Fig. 3), an adult female from 35.3900°N, 119.0608°W (125 m elev.), 0.65 km N of Rosedale Hwy. by Landco Dr., then 0.15 km W at end of Gilmore Ave., Bakersfield, Kern County, California, collected on April 21, 2010, by Theodore J. Papenfuss; MVZ 267228 (Fig. 3), an adult, not sexed, from 35.3894°N, 119.0697°W (120 m elev.) in a field 0.8 km N of Rosedale Hwy. by Fruitvale Ave. then 0.3 km E of the end of Price Way, Bakersfield, Kern County, California, U.S.A., collected on March 17, 2005, by Theodore J. Papenfuss. Figure numbers refer to PAPENFUSS & PARHAM 2013. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Distinguished from all other species of Anniella by a unique ventral coloration of Grayish Red (2.5R 4/2, RGB #755A61). This coloration is continuous from the anterior end of the lower jaw to the end of the tail and is present in all paratypes and known specimens. It is further distinguished from A. pulchra, A. stebbinsi, and A. campi by its higher vertebral count (Fig. 5). Anniella grinnelli shows a maximum mitochondrial sequence divergence (for ND2, see Materials and Methods) from A. pulchra of 9.2%, from A. stebbinsi of 6.4%, from A. alexanderae of 6.0%, and from A. campi of 5.8%. 
Comment 
EtymologyThis species is named after Joseph Grinnell (1877–1939; Fig. 6), the first director of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California at Berkeley. Joseph Grinnell published hun- dreds of scientific papers based on his extensive collecting and surveys in western North America, and developed the Grinnell Method of note taking that has become the standard for natural history observations. 
References
  • Herr, M.W. & Papenfuss, J.T. 2017. Anniella grinnelli (Bakersfield Legless Lizard) Predation. Herpetological Review 48 (3): 633. - get paper here
  • Papenfuss, Theodore J. and James F. Parham 2013. Four New Species of California Legless Lizards (Anniella). Breviora 536: 1-17 - get paper here
 
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