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Anolis alocomyos (KÖHLER, VARGAS & LOTZKAT, 2014)

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymNorops alocomyos KÖHLER, VARGAS & LOTZKAT 2014
Anolis alocomyos — TARR et al. 2018
Norops alocomyos — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCosta Rica (San José)

Type locality: road between Santa María de Dota and Copey, 9.65696°N, 83.94831°W, elev. 1,720 m asl, Provincia de San José, Costa Rica  
TypesHolotype: SMF 93635 (KP209362), adult male; collected by Gunther Köhler on 21 February 2010; original field number GK-2405.
Paratypes: Collected by Gunther Köhler on 21 February 2010. All from Provincia de San José, Costa Rica: SMF 93636 (KP209363), along the road between Santa María de Dota and Copey, 9.64955°N, 83.93845°W, elev. 1,850 m; SMF 93637 (KP209364), 93638–41, along the road between Copey and Providencia, 9.61539°N, 83.90802°W, elev. 2,370 m; SMF 93642, along the road between Copey and Providencia, 9.61008°N, 83.90865°W, elev. 2,540 m. SMF 93636–37, 93642 are adult males, the remaining paratypes are adult females. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized (maximum SVL 49.0 mm in males, 54.1 mm in females) species (our Species C of the Norops pachypus complex) of the genus Norops (sensu Nicholson et al. 2012) that is most similar in external morphology to N. benedikti, N. magnaphallus, N. pachypus, N. pseudopachypus, N. tropidolepis, and a species described below (our Species A of the Norops pachypus complex). These six species and N. alocomyos are differ- entiated from all other anoles by the presence of a combination of narrow toe pads, long legs (tip of the 4th toe of the adpressed hind limb usually reaching a point anterior to the eye), a dark interorbital bar, a striking lateral head pattern of dark brown and cream lines radiating from the eye, usually at least the indication of a lyriform marking on the occipital region, keeled dorsal scales on head and body, smooth to weakly keeled ventral scales at midbody, and a lack of enlarged postcloacal scales in males. Norops alocomyos can be distinguished from the other six species in the Norops pachypus complex by a distinctive hemipenial morphology that includes very long lobes (vs. short, bulky lobes), a closed sulcus spermaticus on the apical branches (vs. a sulcus spermaticus that opens at the base of the apex into one or two broad fields void of ornamentation), and a conical processus on the sulcal side of the base of the truncus (vs. no such processus). Norops alocomyos can be differentiated further from N. benedikti, N. pachypus, and N. pseudopachypus by the presence of a uniform purplish red male dewlap in life (vs. a male dewlap mostly orange yellow, or red with a yellow central blotch and/or yellow margin, at least anteriorly). 
EtymologyThe specific name alocomyos is a compound noun formed from the Greek words alox (furrow) and myo (close), referring to the closed sulcus spermaticus in this species, which is unique among the known species in the Norops pachypus complex. 
  • Köhler, Gunther; Joseph Vargas, and Sebastian Lotzkat 2014. Two new species of the Norops pachypus complex (Squamata, Dactyloidae) from Costa Rica. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 254–280. - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Tarr, S. , Meiri, S., Hicks, J. J. and Algar, A. C. 2018. A biogeographic reversal in sexual size dimorphism along a continental temperature gradient. Ecography, doi:10.1111/ecog.03593 - get paper here
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