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Anolis apletophallus KÖHLER & SUNYER, 2008

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis apletophallus KÖHLER & SUNYER 2008
Anolis limifrons — BOCOURT 1873 (part)
Anolis limifrons — DUNN 1930 (part)
Anolis limifrons — BARBOUR 1934 (part)
Anolis limifrons — BREDER 1946 (part)
Norops apletophallus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012 
DistributionPanama (Panamá Province)

Type locality: Panama City, Metropolitan National Park (8°58’60’’N, 79°32’46’’W), 45 m elevation, Panamá Province, Panama. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 85307, an adult collected 26 January 2006 by Gunther Köhler, Javier Sunyer, Abel A. Batista R. and Marcos Ponce. Field tag number GK 1672. 
CommentDiagnosis: A medium-sized species (SVL in largest specimen 47.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe, 2004) that is most similar in external morphology to a cluster of Central American species that are long-legged (longest toe of adpressed hindlimb reaches to mid-eye or beyond), have a single elongated prenasal scale, smooth to slightly keeled ventral scales, and slender habitus, often delicate (i.e., Anolis dollfusianus, A. limifrons, A. ocelloscapularis, A. rodriguezii, A. yoroen- sis, A. zeus). Within this cluster of species, A. apletophallus is most similar to A. limifrons from which it is readily distinguished by hemipenis morphology: hemipenis small and unilobed in A. limifrons, large and bilobed in A. apletophallus (Fig. 6). Anolis apletophallus differs from the remaining species in this cluster by the following characteristics (con- dition for A. apletophallus in parentheses): Anolis dollfusianus: Hemipenis unilobed (bilobed); ventrals weakly keeled and slightly imbricate (smooth and non-imbricate). Anolis ocelloscapularis: Ventrals weakly keeled and slightly imbricate (smooth and non-imbricate); an ocellated shoulder spot present (absent). Anolis rodriguezii: Ventrals weakly keeled and slightly imbricate (smooth and non-imbricate). Anolis yoroensis: Ventrals weakly keeled and slightly imbricate (smooth and non-imbricate). Anolis zeus: Hemipenis unilobed (bilobed); male dewlap uniformly dull white (almost uniformly orange) [from KÖHLER & SUNYER 2008].

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
EtymologyThe name apletophallus is formed from the Greek words apletos (immense) and phallos (penis) and is used as a noun in apposition. 
References
  • Barbour, T. 1934. The anoles. II. The mainland species from México southward. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 77: 121-155. - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. E. 1873. In: A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv; In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Ce Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, Livr. 2-15, pp. 33-860. - get paper here
  • Breder, C. M. 1946. Amphibians and reptiles of the Rio Chucunaque drainage, Darién, Panamá, with notes on their life histories and habitats. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 86: 379-435
  • Dunn, E. R. 1930. Notes on Central American Anolis. Proc. New England Zool. Club 12: 15-24
  • Köhler, Gunther and Javier Sunyer 2008. TWO NEW SPECIES OF ANOLES FORMERLY REFERRED TO AS ANOLIS LIMIFRONS (SQUAMATA: POLYCHROTIDAE). Herpetologica 64 (1): 92-108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Stapley J, Garcia M, Andrews RM 2015. Long-Term Data Reveal a Population Decline of the Tropical Lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a Negative Affect of El Nino Years on Population Growth Rate. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0115450. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115450 - get paper here
 
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