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Anolis australis KÖHLER, ZIMMER, MCGRATH & HEDGES, 2019

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSouthern Stout Anole 
SynonymAudantia australis KÖHLER, ZIMMER, MCGRATH & HEDGES 2019: 65 
DistributionDominican Republic

Type locality: 9.4 km S of Aceitillar (26.6 km N of Cabo Rojo) (18.1083, -71.6200), 710 m, Province Pedernales, Dominican Republic  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. SMF 104272, an adult male; collected 26 July 1991 by S. Blair Hedges, Nicholas Plummer, and Richard Thomas. Field tag number SBH-192576.
Paratypes. SMF 104273, USNM 575285–86, same collecting data as holotype; SMF 104274-75, USNM 575287, from 18.2 km N. Pedernales at stream (Los Arroyos border road) (18.155; -71.75), 200 m, Province Pedernales, Dominican Republic; collected 20 August 2015 by S. Blair Hedges, Matthew Heinicke, and Nicolás Corona; SMF 104276, near Altagracia (18.19389; -71.73306), 670 m, Province Pedernales, Dominican Republic; collected 20 August 2015 by S. Blair Hedges, Matthew Heinicke, and Nicolás Corona; SMF 104277, Mencía-Altagracia road, 1 km S Altagracia (18.1781; -71.72965), 700 m, collected 20 August 2015 by S. Blair Hedges, Matthew Heinicke, and Nicolás Corona. All paratypes are adult males except SMF 104274–75, USNM 575287, 575285 that are adult females, and USNM 575286 in which the sex was not determined. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A species of the genus Audantia (our Species 3 “australis”) that differs from all congeners by the combination of having (1) smooth ventral scales; (2) male dewlap dirty white with yellowish or orange suffusions, and with homogeneously distributed gorgetal scales, reduced in size in central portion of dewlap; (3) dark gular streaks present in males; (4) no patch of enlarged scales in nuchal region; (5) a double row of weakly enlarged, usually less than twice the size of adjacent scales, non-mucronate vertebral scales; (6) usually one sublabial scale in contact with infralabials; (7) 206–240 scales around midbody in males; and (8) keeled scales on dorsal surfaces of upper forelimb and anterior surface of thigh.
Audantia australis differs from A. armouri, A. breslini, A. shrevei, and A. saxatilis by having dark gular streaks (usually absent); and by having one or two well-defined pale longitudinal lateral stripes, usually edged with orange or olive-green (vs. such stripes absent).

Audantia australis differs further from A. armouri by having 206–240 scales around midbody in males (vs. 118–172). Audantia australis differs further from A. shrevei by lacking a patch of greatly enlarged scales in nuchal region (vs. such a patch present). Audantia australis differs from A. cybotes by having smooth ventral scales (vs. keeled, smooth in some individuals); by having a double row of only weakly enlarged, usually less than twice the size of adjacent scales, non-mucronate vertebral scales (vs. greatly enlarged, at least three times the size of adjacent scales, and mucronate); by having a dirty white male dewlap with yellowish or orange suffusions (vs. suffusions absent); and by having smaller gorgetal scales in central region of dewlap (vs. all large). Audantia australis differs from A. doris by having dark gular streaks (usually absent); by having a male dewlap with homogeneously distributed, narrowly spaced gorgetal scales (vs. heterogeneously distributed with groups of cluttered scales); and by having 206–240 scales around midbody in males (vs. 166–184). Audantia australis differs from A. marcanoi and A. strahmi by having a dirty white male dewlap with yellowish or orange suffusions (vs. rose-red at the edge, more orangish anteriorly and posteriorly, but purplish or even bluish toward the center in A. marcanoi, and orange with paler center in A. strahmi). Audantia australis differs further from A. marcanoi by having a well-defined double row of enlarged vertebral scales (vs. vertebral scales gradually enlarged, not forming a regular double row). Audantia australis differs from A. hispaniolae and A. longitibialis by having a male dewlap with homogeneously distributed gorgetal scales, all large on posterior half of dewlap (vs. heterogeneously distributed, somewhat spaced, and with groups of cluttered scales, scales smaller in central region of dewlap or all gorgetals small). Audantia australis differs further from A. hispaniolae by having 180–222 scales around midbody in males (vs. 214–244); and by lacking yellowish or orange suffusions on male dewlap (vs. often present). Audantia australis differs from A. higuey by having dark gular streaks (vs. absent); by having a weakly keeled double row of only weakly enlarged, usually less than twice the size of adjacent scales vertebrals scales (vs. strongly keeled and greatly enlarged, at least three times the size of adjacent scales); and by having 206–240 scales around midbody in males (vs. 166–212). Audantia australis differs from A. ravifaux by having keeled scales on dorsal surface of upper forelimb and anterior surface of thigh (vs. smooth); by having homogeneously distributed gorgetals and the upper portion of dewlap mostly covered by scales with little free skin (vs. heterogeneously distributed gorgetals with groups of cluttered scales, widely spaced); and by having one or two well-defined pale longitudinal lateral stripes, usually edged with orange or olive-green (vs. such stripes absent). For differences between A. australis and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species. 
CommentSynonymy: previously called A. cybotes. See chresonymy in KÖHLER et al. 2019: 65. 
EtymologyThe species name (australis) is an adjective meaning “southern,” referring to the distribution of the species on the southern paleo-island of Hispaniola. 
References
  • Köhler, Gunther; Caroline Zimmer, Kathleen McGrath, and S. Blair Hedges 2019. A REVISION OF THE GENUS AUDANTIA OF HISPANIOLA WITH DESCRIPTION OF FOUR NEW SPECIES (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE). NOVITATES CARIBAEA 14: 1-104 - get paper here
 
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