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Anolis bimaculatus (SPARRMAN, 1784)

IUCN Red List - Anolis bimaculatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesPanther Anole 
SynonymLacerta bimaculata SPARRMAN 1784:170
Xiphosurus bimaculata — FITZINGER 1826
Ctenonotus bimaculatus — FITZINGER 1843: 64
Anolis antiquae BARBOUR 1915: 74
Anolis barbudensis BARBOUR 1923: 4
Anolis bimaculatus bimaculatus — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959
Anolis bimaculatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 228
Anolis bimaculatus — POWELL & HENDERSON 2001
Ctenonotus bimaculatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012 
DistributionLesser Antilles: St. Eustatius, St. Christopher, Nevis

Type locality: St. Eustatius.  
TypesHolotype: Museum de Geer Royal, Stockholm. 
CommentSynonymy partly after LAZELL 1972. Anolis leachii has been synonymized with A. alliaceus by Günther 1888, then revalidated and is now a full species.

Subspecies: Anolis bimaculatus leachi DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837 has been elevated to full species status.

Species group: Ctenonotus bimaculatus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

The bimaculatus series of anoles contains A. bimaculatus and several other sub-groups, namely the gingivinus sub-group (gingivinus, nubilus, sabanus), the leachii sub-group (leachii), and the marmoratus sub-group (marmoratus, ferreus, lividus, oculatus) [STENSON et al. 2004].

Size: max snouth-vent-length (SVL) in mm (male/female):114/69 
References
  • Barbour, Thomas 1923. West Indian investigations of 1922. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (132): 1-9
  • Barbour,T. 1915. Recent notes regarding West Indian reptiles and amphibians. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 28: 71-78 - get paper here
  • Burnell, K. L.;Hedges, S. B. 1990. Relationships of West Indian Anolis (Sauria: Iguanidae): An approach using slow-evolving protein loci. Carib. J. Sci. 26 (1-2): 7-30 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Gorman, G. C.;Kim, Y. J. 1976. Anolis lizards of the eastern Caribbean: a case study in evolution. II. Genetic relationships and genetic variation of the Bimaculatus group. Systematic Zoology 25 (1): 62-77
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp.
  • Losos, Jonathan B. 1996. Dynamics of range expansion by three introduced species of Anolis lizards on Bermuda. Journal of Herpetology 30 (2): 204-210 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean. MacMillan, London & Oxford
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Powell, R.;Passaro, R. J.;Henderson, R. W. 1992. Noteworthy herpetological records from Saint Maarten, Netherlands Antilles. Carib. J. Sci. 28: 234-234
  • Powell, Robert; Robert W. Henderson & J.S. Parmerlee 2005. The reptiles and amphibians of the Dutch Caribbean. St. eustatius, Saba, and St Maarten. The St. Eustatius National Parks foundation, 192 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 50].
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Savage,J.M. & Guyer,C. 1991. Nomenclatural notes on Anoles (Sauria: Polychridae): stability over priority. Journal of Herpetology 25 (3): 365-366 - get paper here
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Sparrman, A. 1784. Lacerta bimaculata, eine neue Eidechse aus Amerika. Der Königlich-Schwedischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Neue Abhandlungen, aus der Naturlehre Haushaltungskunst und Mechanik, für das Jahr 1784, 3(1): 173–174. - get paper here
  • Stenson, Andrew G.; Roger S.Thorpe and Anita Malhotra 2004. Evolutionary differentiation of bimaculatus group anoles based on analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 1 –10 - get paper here
  • Van Beest, P. and Haberham, Z.L. 2003. Een gebruikaanwijzing voor één van de meest interssante groepen terrarumdieren: Anolissen Deel I. Lacerta 61 (2): 53-64 - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
 
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