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Anolis callainus KÖHLER & HEDGES, 2020

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Dominican Green Anole, Northern Hispaniolan green anole, Hispaniolan green anole 
SynonymAnolis chloro-cyanus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 117
Dactyloa (Xiphosurus) chlorocyana — FITZINGER 1843: 67
Anolis bullaris — GRAY 1845: 206 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Anolis laeviceps LICHTENSTEIN 1856: 7
Anolis (Ctenocercus) coelestinus COPE 1863 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Anolis chlorocyanus — BOULENGER 1885: 44
Anolis chlorocyanus — FISCHER 1888: 30
Anolis chlorocyanus — SCHMIDT 1921
Anolis chloro-cyanus — MERTENS 1938
Anolis chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 235
Anolis chlorocyanus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Deiroptyx chlorocyana — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis chlorocyanus — KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016
Deiroptyx chlorocyana — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Anolis callainus KÖHLER & HEDGES 2020 (nom. nov.) 
DistributionE Hispaniola (Dominican Republic: north of the Plaine de Cul de Sac-Valle de Neiba, extending into that plain locally; Massif de la Selle (local); Île de la Gonâve, Île de la Tortue, Isla Saona)
USA (introduced to Florida)
Suriname (introduced)

Type locality: Martinique (in error) and St.-Domingue. Corrected to “El Limón, Península Samaná (19.28929, -69.43118), 30 m, Province Samaná, Dominican Republic” by KÖHLER & HEDGES 2020.  
ReproductionGarcia et al. (1994) documented hybridization between A. chlorocyanus and A. coelestinus. 
TypesHolotype: SMF 97845 (Köhler & Hedges 2020), formerly designated as neotype by Köhler & Hedges 2015. Former syntypes (see comment): MNHN-RA 0785 (= MNHN 785) (4), MNHN-RA 2007.2406 (was 0785A), MNHN-RA 2007.2407 (was 0785B), MNHN-RA 2007.2408 (was 0785C), and MNHN-RA 2007.2409 (was 0787A), 2007.2406-9 erroneously given as 2007.2066–09 by Köhler & Hedges 2015), and MNHN-RA 0787 (was 787, two specimens) (fide Köhler & Hedges 2016: 5, I. Ineich, pers. comm., March 2019); the syntypes of A. chlorocyanus have the diagnostic traits of the taxonomic species traditionally referred to as A. coelestinus. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. peynadoi by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) relatively short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (3) the ventral scales at midbody smooth; (4) 39–47 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (5) male dewlap with large and irregularly arranged gorgetals, especially on posterior portion of dewlap; (7) ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0. Among the Anolis species occuring treated in this contribution, A. chlorocyanus is most similar to A. cyanostictus, A. peynadoi, and a species described below (our Species D of this complex). Anolis chlorocyanus differs from A. cyanostictus by (1) having usually smooth ventral scales (vs. weakly keeled in A. cyanostictus); (2) by the lack of pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches present in A. cyanostictus); (3) by having the posterior portion of the male dewlap intensively suffused with black pigment, and (4) adult females with longitudinal stripes on body (vs. uniformly colored in female A. cyanostictus). Anolis chlorocyanus differs from A. peynadoi in (1) having only a weak suffusion of black pigment on the posterior portion of the male dewlap with less widely spaced gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap skin on posterior portion solid black with widely spaced gorgetal scales in A. peynadoi); (2) no white streak on upper lip (vs. a white streak usually present in A. peynadoi, most obvious in life); (3) a more slender habitus (vs. a more robust habitus in A. peynadoi); and (4) slightly to moderately enlarged outer postmental scales, less than three time the size of adjacent medial scales (vs. moderately to greatly enlarged outer postmental scales, about three time the size of adjacent medial scales in A. peynadoi). Anolis chlorocyanus differs from the species related to A. coelestinus by having (1) a bicolored dewlap with a darker posterior portion and with regularly spaced more or less homogeneous gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap yellowish green or brown in life dewlap with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales); (2) 12–24 loreal scales in a maximum of 3–4 rows (vs. 18–48, usually >28 loreal scales in a maximum of 3–7 rows); (3) the absence of a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. such stripe and streak present or absent); and (4) a brown to reddish brown iris in life (vs. a blue iris). Anolis chlorocyanus differs from A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). For differences between A. chlorocyanus and the species described below, see the respective account of the new species [Köhler & Hedges 2016: 51]. 
CommentSynonymy: partly fide SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988. The six syntypes of Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril & Bibron 1837 (MNHN-RA 0785, MNHN-RA 2007.2406, MNHN-RA 2007.2407, MNHN-RA 2007.2408, MNHN-RA 2007.2409, and MNHN-RA 0787) are conspecific with the only available syntype of A. coelestinus Cope, 1862 (i.e., MCZ 3347). Hence Köhler & Hedges petitioned the ICZN to use its plenary power to set aside the type status of the syntypes of Anolis chlorocyanus in order to stabilize the current and long established usage of the names A. chlorocyanus and A. coelestinus (Köhler & Hedges, 2015). They also proposed that SMF 97845 should be the designated neotype of A. chlorocyanus Duméril & Bibron 1837. However, with its ruling (a majority voted in favor, but not the required two-thirds majority), the commission did not approve their application (ICZN 2020). Therefore, Anolis coelestinus Cope, 1862 and Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 are synonyms, and the latter name must be used for the species traditionally called Anolis coelestinus. Köhler & Hedges 2020 proposed a replacement name for the Hispaniolan anole species formerly referred to as Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril & Bibron 1837, A. callainus.

Illustrations: Mertens, 1939; Mertens, 1940; Cochran, 1941; Williams, 1965; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 58 (Fig. 40).

Similar species: A. chlorcyanus has been split up into 4 similar species by KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016, namely A. chlorocyanus, A. cyanostictus, A. leucodera, and A. peynadoi.

Subspecies: Anolis chlorocyanus cyanostictus MERTENS 1939 and Anolis chlorocyanus peynadoi MERTENS 1939 have been elevated to full species status by KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016.

Conservation. Given its usual abundance wherever this species occurs along with its relatively large geographical range, we consider the conservation status of Anolis chlorocyanus to be Least Concern based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012).

Species group: Deiroptyx chlorocyana species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin “callainus” for pale green or blue-green and is used here as a masculine noun in apposition, referring to this species’ overall coloration in life. 
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