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Anolis carolinensis VOIGT, 1832

IUCN Red List - Anolis carolinensis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria (lizards) 
SubspeciesAnolis carolinensis carolinensis (VOIGT, 1832)
Anolis carolinensis seminolus VANCE, 1991 
Common NamesE: Green anole
G: Rotkehlanolis 
SynonymAnolis carolinensis (VOIGT 1832)
Lacerta principalis LINNAEUS 1758 (fide DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 121)
Anolis bullaris — DAUDIN 1802: 69 (part.)
Anolis strumosa — HARLAN 1835: 143
Anolis Carolinensis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 120
Anolis podargicus RICHARDSON 1837: 200 (part.)
Dactyloa (Ctenocercus) carolinensis — FITZINGER 1843: 68
Anolis principalis — GRAY 1845: 202
Anolis baccatus BOCOURT 1873: 59
Anolis baccatus — BOULENGER 1885: 54
Anolis carolinensis — BOULENGER 1885: 43
Anolis principalis — LOENNBERG 1894
Anolis baccatus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Anolis baccatus — FITCH & HENDERSON 1973: 127
Norops baccatus — LINER 1994
Anolis carolinensis — LINER 1994
Anolis carolinensis — MCKEOWN 1996
Norops baccatus — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis carolinensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Anolis baccatus — LINER 2007
Anolis carolinensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis carolinensis seminolus VANCE 1991
Anolis carolinensis seminolus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Anolis carolinensis seminolis [sic] — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis carolinensis seminolus — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (E Texas, SE Oklahoma, S Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, SE Tennessee), Mexico
Bahamas, Grand Cayman Islands (HR 33: 321), Anguilla (HR 32: 118)

Introduced to Hawaii (fide MCKEOWN 1996)
Introduced to Japan (Chichizima Is. and Hahazima Is. of Ogasawara Islands.And Okinawazima Is.).

baccatus: Mexico; Type locality: Mexico;

seminolus: USA (Florida); Type locality: 6.8 miles WNW of Murdock, Sarasota County, Florida. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesNeotype: ChR 862
Holotype: UCMZ 53793 [seminolus]
Holotype: MNHN 1126 [baccaus] 
CommentSynonymy: partly after VANCE 1991. BOULENGER 1885 listed A. porcatus as synonym of A. carolinensis. A specimen rof A. baccatus eported from Sepaquite, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala by Barbour 1934: 124 is actually A. sericeus (fide Stuart, cited in SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 62). ANDERSSON states that the Lacerta principalis of LINNAEUS 1758 is not Anolis carolinensis.

Genetics: In July 2005, the scientific community overwhelmingly chose the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis, as its first target species for reptilian genome sequencing, with the American alligator, garter snake and/or painted turtle to follow (http://www.reptilegenome.org) (MODI & CREWS 2005). The genome sequence has been completed in 2011 (Alföldi et al. 2011).

Evolution: On small islands in Florida, we found that the lizard Anolis carolinensis moved to higher perches following invasion by Anolis sagrei and, in response, adaptively evolved larger toepads after only 20 generations (Stuart et al. 2014).

Sexual dimorphism: the carolinensis and hendersoni clades are the most extreme both in male facial elongation and the degree of sexual dimorphism (Sanger et al. 2013).

Distribution: See map in VANCE 1991. Probably erroneously reported from Belize. A single specimen (UF 23924) has been collected from Half Moon Cay (Belize), and Lee 1996 reports that this specimen indeed looks like A. carolinensis. Lee (2000) reports that efforts to find additional carolinensis on Half Moon Cay (Belize) have not been successful. However, Anolis allisoni is known from Belize (especially Half Moon Cay), and is very similar (and very closely related) to carolinensis. Not on Cuba (L. Mahler, pers. comm.). There are questionable records from SE Virginia (VANCE 1991).

Species group: Anolis carolinensis species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
Etymologynamed after the Carolinas where the species was found. A. c. seminolus has been named after the Seminole Indians of Florida. 
References
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