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Anolis distichus COPE, 1861

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesAnolis distichus distichus COPE 1861
Anolis distichus aurifer SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus biminiensis OLIVER 1948
Anolis distichus dapsilis SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus distichoides ROSÉN 1911
Anolis distichus dominicensis REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1863
Anolis distichus favillarum SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus floridanus SMITH & MCCAULEY 1948
Anolis distichus ignigularis MERTENS 1939
Anolis distichus juliae COCHRAN 1934
Anolis distichus ocior SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus patruelis SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus properus SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus ravitergum SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus sejunctus SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus suppar SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus tostus SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis distichus vinosus SCHWARTZ 1968 
Common NamesHispaniolan gracile anole, Bark anole 
SynonymAnolis distichus COPE 1861: 208
Anolis distichus — BOULENGER 1885: 33
Anolis distichus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 93
Anolis distichus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 252
Anolis distichus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Anolis distichus — GLOR & LAPORT 2012
Ctenonotus distichus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis distichus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Anolis distichus distichus COPE 1861
Ctenonotus distichus distichus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus aurifer SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus aurifer — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus biminiensis OLIVER 1948
Ctenonotus distichus biminiensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus dapsilis SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus dapsilis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus distichoides ROSÉN 1911
Anolis distichoides ROSEN 1911
Anolis distichus distichoides — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991
Ctenonotus distichus distichoides — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus dominicensis REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1863
Anolis dominicensis REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1863: 261
Anolis distichus albidogularis MERTENS 1939: 59
Anolis distichus dominicensis — POWELL et al. 1999
Anolis dominicensis — GLOR & LAPORT 2012
Ctenonotus distichus dominicensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus favillarum SCHWARTZ 1968
Anolis favillarum — GLOR & LAPORT 2012
Ctenonotus distichus favillarum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus floridanus SMITH & MCCAULEY 1948
Anolis distichus floridanus — DENZER 1985
Anolis distichus floridanus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Anolis distichus ignigularis MERTENS 1939
Ctenonotus distichus ignigularis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis ignigularis — GLOR & LAPORT 2012

Anolis distichus juliae COCHRAN 1934
Anolis dominicensis juliae COCHRAN 1934
Anolis distichus juliae — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Anolis distichus juliae — POWELL et al. 1999
Ctenonotus distichus juliae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus ocior SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus ocior — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus patruelis SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus patruelis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus properus SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus properus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis properus — GLOR & LAPORT 2012
Anolis distichus properus — SCHMIDT 2013

Anolis distichus ravitergum SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus ravitergum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis ravitergum — GLOR & LAPORT 2012

Anolis distichus sejunctus SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus sejunctus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus suppar SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus suppar — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus tostus SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus tostus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis distichus vinosus SCHWARTZ 1968
Ctenonotus distichus vinosus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (introduced to S Florida), Bahamas,
Hispaniola: Haiti, Dominican Republic,
Cat Island I, Little San Salvador, Ile de la Tortue, Ile-a-Vache,
Ile Grande Cayemite, Ile Petite Cayemite, Isla Saona, Isla Catalina

Anolis distichus distichus Great Bahama Bank (except Bimini Is., Andros I., Berry Is., Eleuthera I., Eleuthera Cays); Cat I. material intergradient between A. d. distichus, A. d. dapsilis, and A. d. ocior. Type locality: New Providence Island, Bahama Islands.

Anolis distichus aurifer: Hispaniola, northern and southern slopes of Massif de la Hotte except for range of A. d. vinosus; intergrades with A. d. dominicensis.

Anolis distichus biminiensis: Bahama Is.: Bimini Is.

Anolis distichus dapsilis: Great Bahama Bank: Eleuthera I., Eleuthera Cays, Little San Salvador I.; apparently the subspecies introduced on Grand Bahama I.

Anolis distichus distichoides: Great Bahama Bank: Andros I., Berry Is.; Bahamas: Andros Island (fide Barbour 1914).

Anolis distichus dominicensis: Hispaniola, throughout much of Haiti and República Dominicana with exception of ranges of other mainland Hispaniolan subspecies; possibly subspecies on Île de la Tortue; intergrades with A. d. ignigularis in Cordillera Central; isolated population in Azua and Barahona provinces; introduced in southeast Florida.

Anolis distichus favillarum: Hispaniola, Sierra de Baoruco, República Dominicana; possibly intergrading with A. d. dominicensis in Pedernales Province. Altitudinal distribution 2300 ft. to 4450 ft.

Anolis distichus ignigularis: Hispaniola, República Dominicana, south-central and eastern portions; Peninsula de Samaná; introduced in southeast Florida.

Anolis distichus juliae: Hispaniola, Île-à-Vache.

Anolis distichus ocior: Bahama Is.: Rum Cay; San Salvador I. including satellite cays.

Anolis distichus patruelis: Hispaniola, Haiti, Île Grande Cayemite; possibly Île Petite Cayemite.

Anolis distichus properus: Hispaniola, eastern República Dominicana; intergrades with A. d. ignigularis NE La Romana.

Anolis distichus ravitergum: Hispaniola, República Dominicana, Valle de Neiba, Llanos de Azua, east to San Cristóbal Province; intergrades with A. d. ignigularis in southern Peravia Province, and possibly with A. d. dominicensis in Azua Province.

Anolis distichus sejunctus: República Dominicana, Isla Saona.

Anolis distichus suppar: Hispaniola, Haiti, extreme western tip of Tiburon Peninsula; intergrades with A. d. aurifer on north coast.

Anolis distichus tostus: República Dominicana, Isla Catalina.

Anolis distichus vinosus: Hispaniola, extreme southwestern Tiburon Peninsula: intergrades with A. d. aurifer at Cavaillon and Plaine Martin, and with A. d. suppar between Roche-à-Bateaux and Coteaux. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 7780-87.
Holotype: MCZ 81125 [aurifer]
Holotype: AMNH 68640 [biminiensis]
Holotype: MCZ 81139 [dapsilis]
Syntypes: presumed in Zool. Mus. Univ. Lund [distichoides]
Syntypes: HZM 1486a-c, allotypes in ZMUC [dominicensis]
Holotype: MCZ 81133 [favillarum]
Holotype: SMF 25694 [ignigularis]
Holotype: MCZ 37517 [juliae]
Holotype: MCZ 81140 [ocior]
Holotype: MCZ 81138 [patruelis]
Holotype: MCZ 81130 [properus]
Holotype: MCZ 81132 [ravitergum]
Holotype: MCZ 91131 [sejunctus]
Holotype: MCZ 81137 [suppar]
Holotype: MCZ 81124 [tostus]
Holotype: MCZ 81136 [vinosus] 
CommentFor illustrations see Mertens, 1939; Mertens, 1940; Cochran, 1941; Schwartz, 1968 b.

Synonymy: Anolis brevirostris is listed as a synonym of A. distichus by BOULENGER (1885) but is now considered as a valid species.

Subspecies: GLOR & LAPORT 2012 elevated several subspecies to full species rank (see synonymy list). However, since they did not include many other subspecies in their analysis we postpone following these suggestions.

Species group: Ctenonotus distichus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
References
  • Arnold, D. L. 1980. Geographic variation in Anolis brevirostris (Sauria: Iguanidae) in Hispaniola. Breviora (461):1-31 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. 1904. Batrachia and Reptilia from the Bahamas. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 46: 55—61 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1914. A Contribution to the Zoögeography of the West Indies, with Especial Reference to Amphibians and Reptiles. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 44 (2): 205-359 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas & Loveridge, Arthur 1946. First supplement to typical reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96 (2): 59-214. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D. M. 1934. Herpetological collections made in Hispaniola by the Utowana Expedition. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 163-188 - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Notes and descriptions of anoles. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 208-215. - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Denzer, W. 1985. Die Herpetofauna Südfloridas, Teil 1: Die disjunkten Populationen tropischer Reptilien und Amphibien im Süden Floridas. Sauria 7 (2): 5-10 - get paper here
  • Glor, Richard E.; Robert G. Laport 2012. Are subspecies of Anolis lizards that differ in dewlap color and pattern also genetically distinct? A mitochondrial analysis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 64 (2): 255-260 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Kolbe, J.J.; Richard E. GLOR, LOURDES RODRIGUEZ SCHETTINO,<br />ADA CHAMIZO LARA, ALLAN LARSON AND JONATHAN B. LOSOS 2007. Multiple Sources, Admixture, and Genetic Variation in Introduced Anolis Lizard Populations. Conservation Biology 21 (6): 1612–1625
  • Krysko, K.K.; Enge, K.M.; Donlan, E.M.; Golden, E.Z.; Burgess, J.P. & Larson, K.W. 2009. THE NON-MARINE HERPETOFAUNA OF KEY BISCAYNE, FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (1):132-142 - get paper here
  • Leptien, R. & Werning, H. 2009. Exoten-Tagebuch. [introduced reptiles in Florida]. Draco 10 (37): 44-54 - get paper here
  • Livo, Lauren J.; Hammerson, Geoffrey A.; Smith, Hobart M. 1998. Summary of amphibians and reptiles introduced into Colorado. Northwestern Naturalist 79(1):1-11
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Mertens, R. 1940. Zoologische Reisen auf der Insel Hispaniola (from Tierleben der Tropen). Verlag Dr. Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main, 155-241.
  • Meshaka Jr., Walter E. 2011. A RUNAWAY TRAIN IN THE MAKING: THE EXOTIC AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, TURTLES, AND CROCODILIANS OF FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 6 (Monograph 1): 1-101 - get paper here
  • Ng, Julienne and Richard Glor 2010. Dewlap color variation and reproductive isolation in Anolis distichus. Anolis Newsletter VI: 164-169
  • Ng, Julienne; Audrey L. Kelly, Daniel J. MacGuigan and Richard E. Glor 2013. The Role of Heritable and Dietary Factors in the Sexual Signal of a Hispaniolan Anolis Lizard, Anolis distichus. J Hered (2013) 104 (6): 862-873.<br />doi: 10.1093/jhered/est060 - get paper here
  • Ng, Julienne; Susan L. Perkins; Erica J. Dussmann; Richard E. Glor 2009. Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for the lizard Anolis distichus. Conservation Genet Resour (2009) 1:135–139
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108
  • Oliver,J.A. 1948. The anoline lizards of Bimini, Bahamas. American Museum Novitates (1383): 1-36 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Kevin de; Ling-Ru Chu, and Jonathan B. Losos 1998. A Second Anolis Lizard in Dominica Amber and the Systematics and Ecological Morphology of Dominican Amber Anoles. American Museum Novitates 3249: 23 pp. - get paper here
  • Rand, A. Stanley 1962. Notes on Hispaniolan herpetology 5. the natural history of three sympatric species of Anolis. Breviora (154): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Reppas, Anthony T.;Krysko, Kenneth L.;Sonberg, Caryn L.;Robins, R. H. 1999. Geographic distribution. Anolis distichus. Herpetological Review 30 (1): 51 - get paper here
  • Rosén, Nils 1911. Contributions to the Fauna of the Bahamas I. A general account of the fauna, with remarks on the physiography of the islands. II. The Reptiles III. The Fishes. Lunds univ. arsskrift 7 (5): 1-72
  • Rovatsos, Michail; Marie Altmanová, Martina Pokorná and Lukáš Kratochvíl 2014. CONSERVED SEX CHROMOSOMES ACROSS ADAPTIVELY RADIATED ANOLIS LIZARDS. Evolution, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12357 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, T. 2013. Auf Schlangensuche im Familien-Urlaub. Ein Drama in drei Akten. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (99): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1971. Anolis distichus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (108. - get paper here
  • Schwartz,A. 1968. Geographic variation in Anolis distichus Cope (Lacertilia, Iguanidae) in the Bahama Islands and Hispaniola. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 137 (2): 255-309 - get paper here
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • SIFERS,SUSAN M.; MELISSA L. YESKA; YANERYS M. RAMOS ROBERT POWELL AND JOHN S. PARMERLEE, JR. 2001. Anolis Lizards Restricted to Altered Edge Habitats in a Hispaniolan Cloud Forest. Carib. J. Sci. 37 (1-2): 55-62
  • Smith, Hobart M.;McCauley, Robert H., Jr 1948. Another new anole from South Florida. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 61: 159-166 - get paper here
  • Webster,T.P. 1978. Hybridization of Hispaniolan lizards in the Anolis distichus species group. Anolis Newsletter 3: 166-170
  • Werning, H. 2013. Pack die Badehose ein – zu Besuch in Georg Reitmaiers Terrarium der Superlative. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (100): 28-35 - get paper here
 
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