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Anolis grahami GRAY, 1845

IUCN Red List - Anolis grahami - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesAnolis grahami grahami GRAY 1845
Anolis grahami aquarum UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959 
Common NamesGraham's Anole 
SynonymAnolis Grahami GRAY 1845: 274 (substitute name for A. punctatus GRAY 1840: 113, not A. punctatus DAUDIN 1802: 84)
Anolis iodurus GOSSE 1850
Anolis punctatissimus HALLOWELL 1856: 225
Anolis heterolepis HALLOWELL 1856: 230
Anolis grahami — COPE 1869: 164
Anolis guentheri BOCOURT 1873 (fide STUART 1955)
Anolis grahami — BOULENGER 1885: 32
Anolis guentheri — BOULENGER 1885
Anolis iodurus — BARBOUR 1910: 295
Norops grahami — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 154
Anolis grahami — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 270
Norops grahami — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis grahami — COOPER 2005
Norops grahami — NICHOLSON et al. 2012

Anolis grahami aquarum UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959
Norops grahami aquarum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012 
DistributionJamaica, Bermuda

Anolis grahami grahami western Jamaica; Cabarita I. off Port Maria; intergrades with A. g. aquarum. Type locality: Unknown; restricted to “Jamaica” by O’Shaughnessy 1875.

Anolis grahami aquarum: Portland and St. Thomas parishes. Type locality: “Botanical gardens, Bath, St. Thomas [Parish], Jamaica”. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1936.12.3.101 = 1946.8.5.49, BMNH 1946.8.28.89-.9 1.
HOLOTYPE: BMNH 1954.1.2.61 [aquarum]
Holotype: ANSP 7915; Cuba, Cienfuegos [heterolepis]
Sytntypes: (3) ANSP 7897-99; Jamaica [punctatissimus] 
CommentFor illustrations see Underwood and Williams 1959, Milton and Jenssen 1979, Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Synonymy: Anolis opalinus is listed as a synonym of A. grahami by BOULENGER 1885, but is now a valid species. Anolis guentheri BOCOURT 1873 is known from only the holotype and was never reliably found again. It was suspected to be an untypical A. rodriguezi (STUART 1955) but formally synonymized with A. grahami by KÖHLER 2012.

Species group: Norops valencienni species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after James Duncan Graham (1799-1865), American engineer, astronomer and collector of biological specimens. 
References
  • Barbour, T. 1910. Notes on the herpetology of Jamaica. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 52: 273—301 - get paper here
  • Baum, T. 2008. Jamaika, seine Leguane und der Riesenanaolis Anolis garmani. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (72): 73-80 - get paper here
  • Bertolotto, C.E.V.; K.C.M. Pellegrino and Y. Yonenaga-Yassuda 2004. Occurrence of B chromosomes in lizards: a review. Cytogenet Genome Res 106: 243–246
  • Bocourt, M. E. 1873. In: A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv; In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Ce Imprimerie Imper., Paris, Livr. 2-15, pp. 33-860.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1870. Seventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 147-169 [1869] - get paper here
  • Gosse, P. 1850. Description of a new genus and six new species of saurian reptiles. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 6: 344-348. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1856. Notes on reptiles in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 221-238 - get paper here
  • Irschick, D.J. Austin, C.C.; Petren, K.; Fisher, R.N.; Losos, J.B. & Ellers, O. 1996. A comparative analysis of clinging ability among pad-bearing lizards. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 59: 21-35 - get paper here
  • Jackman, Tod R.; Irschick, Duncan J.; de Queiroz, Kevin; Losos, Jonathan; Larson, Allan 2002. Molecular Phylogenetic Perspective on Evolution of Lizards of the Anolis grahami Series. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol. 294 (1):1-16
  • Klaczko, J.; T. Ingram and J. Losos 2015. Genitals evolve faster than other traits in Anolis lizards. Journal of Zoology 295 (1): 44–48 - get paper here
  • Klaczko, Julia and Yoel Stuart 2015. Hemipenial Allometry in Anolis grahami Journal of Herpetology Sep 2015, Vol. 49, No. 3: 462-467. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2012. Taxonomic status of two enigmatic Mexican anoles: Anolis cumingii Peters 1863 and Anolis guentherii Bocourt 1873 (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3551: 82–88 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp.
  • Losos, J.B. 2007. Detective Work in the West Indies: Integrating Historical and Experimental Approaches to Study Island Lizard Evolution. BioScience 57 (7): 585-597
  • Losos, Jonathan B. 1996. Dynamics of range expansion by three introduced species of Anolis lizards on Bermuda. Journal of Herpetology 30 (2): 204-210 - get paper here
  • Macedonia, Joseph M.; David L. Clark, and Alison L. Tamasi 2014. Does Selection Favor Dewlap Colors that Maximize Detectability? A Test with Five Species of Jamaican Anolis Lizards. Herpetologica Jun 2014, Vol. 70, No. 2: 157-170. - get paper here
  • Macedonia, Joseph M.; David L. Clark, Z. Nicholas Brown, Sara Gensterblum, Lauren McNabb, Ashley B. Myrberg, Brooke D. Myrberg, Maria F. Petroche, and Adam Karson 2015. Responses of Anolis grahami Males to Manipulations of Species Identity and Components of Displays in Lizard Robots. Herpetologica Jun 2015, Vol. 71, No. 2: 110-116. - get paper here
  • Milton, T.H., and Jenssen, T.A. 1979. Description and significance of vocalizations by Anolis grahami (Sauria: Iguanidae). Copeia 1979 (3):481-489. - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Russell, A. P. and A. M. Bauer. 1991. Anolis grahami. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (514) - get paper here
  • Schoener, Thomas W.;Schoener, Amy 1971. Structural habitats of West Indian Anolis lizards I. Lowland Jamaica. Breviora (368): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stuart,L.C. 1955. A brief review of the Guatemalan lizards of the genus Anolis. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan No. 91: 1-31 - get paper here
  • Underwood, G. and E. E. Williams. 1959. The anoline lizards of Jamaica. Bull. Inst. Jamaica Sci. Ser. 9: 1-48. - get paper here
  • Wilson, B.S. & Vogel, P. 2000. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica, including the rediscovery of the Blue-tailed Galliwasp (Celestus duquesneyi Grant). Carib. J. Sci. 36: 244-249
  • Wingate, D.B. 1965. Terrestrial herpetofauna of Bermuda. Herpetologica 21 (3): 202-218. - get paper here
 
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