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Anolis grahami GRAY, 1845

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis grahami grahami GRAY 1845
Anolis grahami aquarum UNDERWOOD & WILLIAMS 1959 
Common NamesE: Jamaican Turquoise Anole, Graham's Anole
G: Graham-Anolis 
SynonymAnolis Grahami GRAY 1845: 274 (substitute name for A. punctatus GRAY 1840: 113, not A. punctatus DAUDIN 1802: 84)
Anolis iodurus GOSSE 1850
Anolis punctatissimus HALLOWELL 1856: 225
Anolis heterolepis HALLOWELL 1856: 230
Anolis grahami — COPE 1869: 164
Anolis guentheri BOCOURT 1873 (fide STUART 1955)
Anolis grahami — BOULENGER 1885: 32
Anolis guentheri — BOULENGER 1885
Anolis iodurus — BARBOUR 1910: 295
Anolis grahami grahami — GRANT 1940: 85
Anolis grahami iodurus — GRANT 1940: 86
Norops grahami — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 154
Anolis grahami — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 270
Norops grahami — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis grahami — COOPER 2005
Norops grahami — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops grahami grahami — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis grahami aquarum UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959
Anolis grahami aquarum UNDERWOOD and WILLIAMS 1959: 28
Anolis grahami aquarum — HILGENHOF 1998
Norops grahami aquarum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops grahami aquarum — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionJamaica, Bermuda

Anolis grahami grahami western Jamaica; Cabarita I. off Port Maria; intergrades with A. g. aquarum. Type locality: Unknown; restricted to “Jamaica” by O’Shaughnessy 1875.

Anolis grahami aquarum: Portland and St. Thomas parishes. Type locality: “Botanical gardens, Bath, St. Thomas [Parish], Jamaica”.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1936.12.3.101 = 1946.8.5.49, BMNH 1946.8.28.89-.9 1.
HOLOTYPE: BMNH 1954.1.2.61 [aquarum]
Holotype: ANSP 7915; Cuba, Cienfuegos [heterolepis]
Sytntypes: (3) ANSP 7897-99; Jamaica [punctatissimus] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 75 mm, to 64 mm in females); 4-6 (mode 5) rows of loreals; 1-3 (mode 2) scales between supraorbital semicircles; 3-6 (mode 4-5) scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; scales posterior to interparietal grade abruptly into dorsals; 2 or more rows of middorsal scales somewhat enlarged, swollen, weakly keeled if at all; ventrals larger than dorsals, usually smooth, imbricate; 5 postrostrals; 4 postmentals; suboculars in contact with supralabials; dorsals swollen (granular), weakly keeled; ventrals smooth to moderately keeled, imbricate; supradigital scales multicarinate. Dorsal ground color (male) green; head bluish green, back yellowish green (with or without transverse hourglass markings), sides pronounced yellowish green (sometimes turning khaki); hind legs and rump blue-green; base of tail purple grading into cinnamon distally; or entire body bright emerald-green with some dorsal mottling; venter yellow; dewlap yellow-orange to orange with narrow yellow border; scales of dewlap blue-green; dewlap, including scales, turning nearly black in dark phase; female less brightly colored, generally chalky green with broad, light, middorsal stripe and several darker, transverse bands on back and sacrum (constricted mid-
dorsally), with or without speckling on neck (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 270).

For a table of characters see Jenssen 1977. 
CommentFor illustrations see Underwood and Williams 1959, Milton and Jenssen 1979, Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Synonymy: Anolis opalinus is listed as a synonym of A. grahami by BOULENGER 1885, but is now a valid species. Anolis guentheri BOCOURT 1873 is known from only the holotype and was never reliably found again. It was suspected to be an untypical A. rodriguezi (STUART 1955) but formally synonymized with A. grahami by KÖHLER 2012.

Species group: Norops valencienni species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyNamed after James Duncan Graham (1799-1865), American engineer, astronomer and collector of biological specimens. 
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  • Bergmann, P.J. & A.P. Russell 2001. Growth of the Original Tail in Anolis grahami: Isometry of the Whole Is a Product of Regional Differences Journal of Herpetology 35 (2): 232-238. - get paper here
  • Bertolotto, C.E.V.; K.C.M. Pellegrino and Y. Yonenaga-Yassuda 2004. Occurrence of B chromosomes in lizards: a review. Cytogenet Genome Res 106: 243–246 - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. E. 1873. In: A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv; In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Ce Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, Livr. 2-15, pp. 33-860. - get paper here
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  • GARNER, AUSTIN M.; MICHAEL C. WILSON, CAITLIN WRIGHT, ANTHONY P. RUSSELL, PETER H. NIEWIAROWSKI & ALI DHINOJWALA. 2022. Parameters of the adhesive setae and setal fields of the Jamaican radiation of anoles (Dactyloidae: Anolis): potential for ecomorphology at the microscopic scale. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 137(1): 85–99. - get paper here
  • Gosse, P. 1850. Description of a new genus and six new species of saurian reptiles. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 6: 344-348. - get paper here
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  • Jenssen, T.A. 1977. Morphological, Behavioral and Electrophoretic Evidence of Hybridization between the Lizards, Anolis grahami and Anolis lineatopus neckeri, on Jamaica. Copeia 1977 (2): 270-276 - get paper here
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