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Anolis oculatus (COPE, 1879)

IUCN Red List - Anolis oculatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesAnolis oculatus cabritensis LAZELL 1962
Anolis oculatus montanus LAZELL 1962
Anolis oculatus oculatus (COPE 1879)
Anolis oculatus winstonorum LAZELL 1962 
Common NamesDominican anole, Eyed Anole 
SynonymXiphosurus oculatus COPE 1879: 274
Anolis oculatus — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959
Anolis oculatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 308
Anolis oculatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Ctenonotus oculatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis oculatus cabritensis LAZELL 1962: 469
Anolis oculatus cabritensis — HESELHAUS & SCHMIDT 1995
Ctenonotus oculatus cabritensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus oculatus cabritensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis oculatus montanus LAZELL 1962
Ctenonotus oculatus montanus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus oculatus montanus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis oculatus winstonorum LAZELL 1962
Anolis oculatus winstoni LAZELL 1962: 472
Anolis oculatus winstoni — MANTHEY 1984
Anolis oculatus winstoni — HESELHAUS & SCHMIDT 1995
Anolis oculatus winstoni — ZEILFELDER 2005
Anolis oculatus winstonorum — MICHELS & BAUER 2004
Anolis oculatus winstoni — REIPRICH 2009
Ctenonotus oculatus winstonorum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus oculatus winstoni — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Dominica

oculatus: southwestern periphery of Dominica; intergrades with A. o. cabritensis, A. o. montanus, and A. o. winstoni. Type locality: Dominica; restricted ta Roseau, St. George Parish, Dominica, by Lazell, 1962.

cabritensis: aid leeward coast of Dominica from Grand Savanna ta the Cabrits; intergrades with A. o. winstoni.

montanus: interior uplands of Dominica from Fond Hunt in the north ta Morne Anglais in the south; intergrades with A. o. winstoni.

winstonorum: lowlands of eastern Dominica from Penville in the north ta La Plaine in the south.  
TypesSyntypes: USNM 10139-10148, USNM 10150-10151, USNM 10153
Holotype: MCZ 60319 [montanus]
Holotype: MCZ 60467 [winstonorum]
Holotype: MCZ 60245 [cabritensis] 
CommentFor illustrations see Lazell, 1962; Lazell, 1972; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985, cover of Herpetofauna 8 (45). Has been synonymized with A. alliaceus (e.g. by GÜNTHER 1888).

Variation: This is quite a variable species, see images in Malhotra & Thorpe 1999: 22ff. On the tiny island of Dominica A. oculatus has 4 distinct lineages with as great as 10% mtDNA divergence (Malhotra and Thorpe 2000).

Species group: Ctenonotus bimaculatus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Andrews, Robin M. 1979. Evolution of life histories: A comparison of Anolis lizards from matched island and mainland habitats. Breviora (454): 1-51 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • Krintler, K. 1986. Dominica - herpetologisches Kleinod in der Karibik. Herpetofauna 8 (45): 26-30 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1962. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the Eastern Caribbean, Part V. Geographic differentiation in Anolis oculatus on Dominica. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 127: 466-475 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp.
  • Malhotra A. Thorpe R S. 1997. Size and shape variation in a Lesser Antillean anole, Anolis oculatus (Sauria: Iguanidae) in relation to habitat. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 60 (1): 53-72 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean. MacMillan, London & Oxford
  • Malhotra, A. and R. S. Thorpe. 1992. Anolis oculatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (540) - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A.;Thorpe, R. S. 1991. Microgeographic variation in Anolis oculatus, on the island of Dominica, West Indies. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 4: 321-335
  • Malhotra, Anita; Thorpe, Roger S.; Hypolite, Eric; James, Arlington. 2007. A report on the status of the herpetofauna of the Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies. Applied Herpetology 4 (2):177-194 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita;Thorpe, Roger S. 1994. Parrallels between island lizards suggests selection on mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 257: 37-42 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita;Thorpe, Roger S. 1997. Microgeographic variation in scalation of Anolis oculatus (Dominica, West Indies): a multivariate analysis. Herpetologica 53 (1): 49-62 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1984. 9 Jahre Anolis - Zucht, Teil 2: Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse. Sauria 6 (3): 23-27 - get paper here
  • Michels, J.P. & A.M. Bauer 2004. Some corrections to the scientific names of amphibians and reptiles. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 52: 83–94 [2005] - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Reiprich, W. 2009. Terrarien, Leguane und Co. Iguana Rundschreiben 22 (2): 5-15
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Rovatsos, Michail; Marie Altmanová, Martina Pokorná and Lukáš Kratochvíl 2014. CONSERVED SEX CHROMOSOMES ACROSS ADAPTIVELY RADIATED ANOLIS LIZARDS. Evolution, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12357 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Stenson, Andrew G.; Roger S.Thorpe and Anita Malhotra 2004. Evolutionary differentiation of bimaculatus group anoles based on analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 1 –10 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Malhotra, A. and Surget-Groba, Y. 2015. Widespread parallel population adaptation to climate variation across a radiation: implications for adaptation to climate change. Molecular Ecology 24: 1019–1030. doi: 10.1111/mec.13093 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R.S.; Jones, A.G.; Malhotra, A.; Surget-Groba, Y. 2008. Adaptive radiation in Lesser Antillean lizards: molecular phylogenetics and species recognition in the Lesser Antillean dwarf gecko complex, Sphaerodactylus fantasticus. Molecular Ecology 17(6):1489-1504
  • Welzel, Andreas 1981. Die Nachzucht von Anolis oculatus montanus im Terrarium. Herpetofauna 3 (13): 22-24 - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
  • Zeilfelder, I. 2005. Haltung und Nachzucht von Anolis oculatus winstoni LAZELL 1962. Iguana Rundschreiben 18 (2): 20-26
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