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Anolis osa KÖHLER, DEHLING & KÖHLER, 2010

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis osa KÖHLER, DEHLING & KÖHLER 2010
Norops osa — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops osa — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCosta Rica (Osa Peninsula)

Type locality: about 6.3 km WSW Rincón de Osa, 8°40’36.7’’N, 83°32’7.9’’W, about 150 m elevation, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 80645, an adult male, collected 22 February 2008 by Gunther Köhler and Johannes Köhler. Field tag number GK 2092. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A medium-sized species (SVL in largest specimen 57 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004) that differs from all other Lower Central American beta anoles (sensu Etheridge 1967) except Anolis apletophallus, A. cryptolimifrons, and A. limifrons in that it is long-legged (longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaches to at least center of eye), has smooth ventral scales, and a slender habitus, often delicate. Anolis osa differs from the species in the cluster listed above, except A. polylepis, by having two elongate, overlapping superciliaries (one such scale in A. apletophallus, A. cryptolimifrons, and A. limifrons), usually two anterior prenasal scales (versus one elongate prenasal scale) and dewlap coloration (usually orange with a darker orange basal portion in A. osa versus dirty white with a basal orange-yellow blotch in A. cryptolimifrons and A. limifrons, almost uniformly orange-yellow in A. apletophallus). Anolis osa differs from A. polylepis by having a unilobed hemipenis (bilobed in A. polylepis). Other anole species from Lower Central America that are somewhat similar in appearance to both A. osa and A. polylepis are A. tropidogaster and A. cupreus, the latter of which occurs syntopically at some localities with A. polylepis. However, both A. tropidogaster and A. cupreus have strongly keeled ventral scales (smooth in A. osa and A. polylepis). Also, the majority of males in A. tropidogaster have a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales (these scales usually not enlarged in A. osa and A. polylepis). In the field, most individuals of A. osa and A. polylepis have a pale longitudinal lateral stripe (absent in Costa Rican populations of A. cupreus) [from KÖHLER et al. 2010].
CommentThis is a cryptic species related to A. polylepis (Pacific versant of central and southern Costa Rica and western Panama, excluding the Osa Peninsula). A. osa is restricted to the Osa Peninsula. The two species differ in hemipenial morphology (hemipenis bilobed in A. polylepis versus unilobed in the species from the Osa Peninsula) but show no discernable differences in external morphology (i.e., morphometrics, scalation, coloration, male dewlap).

Hybridization: A. osa and A. polylepis form a hybrid zone, i.e. they may hybridize desprite their different hemipenes (Köhler et al. 2012, Salamandra).

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
EtymologyThe name osa is used as a noun in apposition and in reference to the Peninsula de Osa where the type series of the species was collected and where it is probably restricted. 
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER; ABEL BATISTA, MILAN VESELY, MARCOS PONCE, ARCADIO CARRIZO & SEBASTIAN LOTZKAT 2012. Evidence for the recognition of two species of Anolis formerly referred to as A. tropidogaster (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3348: 1–23 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER; D. MATTHIAS DEHLING & JOHANNES KÖHLER 2010. Cryptic species and hybridization in the Anolis polylepis complex, with the description of a new species from the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 2718: 23–38 - get paper here
  • Köhler, J., M. Hahn & G. Köhler 2012. Divergent evolution of hemipenial morphology in two cryptic species of mainland anoles related to Anolis polylepis. Salamandra 48 (1): 1-11 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
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