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Anolis peynadoi MERTENS, 1939

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesNorthern Hispaniolan green anole, Hispaniolan green anole 
SynonymAnolis chloro-cyanus peynadoi MERTENS 1939
Anolis chloro-cyanus — BARBOUR 1930 (in part.)
Anolis chloro-cyanus — BARBOUR 1935 (in part.)
Anolis chloro-cyanus — BARBOUR 1937 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — WILLIAMS 1965 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ 1980 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — GARCÍA et al. 1994 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — POWELL et al. 1991 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus — POWELL et al. 1996 (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — RAMOS & POWELL 2001b (in part.)
Anolis chlorocyanus chlorocyanus — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009 (in part.)
Anolis peynadoi — KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016 
DistributionW Hispaniola (south and west of the Cordillera Central), elevation 0-940 m.

Type locality: “Südlich von Fondo Negro, unterer Rio Yaque del Sur”, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 26201 
CommentIllustrations: Mertens, 1939

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 58 (Fig. 40).

Synonymy: after KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016.

Conservation. Given its usual abundance wherever this species occurs along with its relatively large geographical range, we consider the conservation status of Anolis peynadoi to be Least Concern based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012).

Species group: Deiroptyx chlorocyana species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

Diagnosis. A moderate-sized to moderately large species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except a species described below (i.e., our Species D of this species complex) by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) a white subocular stripe and a white streak onto lateral neck usually present, most obvious in life (3) relatively short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) the ventral scales at midbody smooth; (5) 39–47 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap bluish green or brown (after metachrosis) with a suffusion of black pigment on posterior portion and with cream to yellow on anterior portion in life, gorgetals large and irregularly arranged, especially on posterior portion of dewlap. Among the Anolis species occuring treated in this contribution, A. peynadoi is most similar to A. chlorocyanus, A. cyanostictus and a species described below (our Species D of this complex). Anolis peynadoi differs from A. chlorocyanus and A. cyanostictus by (1) having the the posterior portion of the dewlap skin in males solid black with widely spaced gorgetal scales (vs. only a weak suffusion of black pigment on the posterior portion of the male dewlap with less widely spaced gorgetal scales in A. chlorocyanus); (2) a white streak on upper lip usually present, most obvious in life (vs. no white streak in A. chlorocyanus); (3) a more robust habitus (vs. a more slender habitus in A. chlorocyanus). Anolis peynadoi differs further from A. chlorocyanus by having moderately to greatly enlarged outer postmental scales, about three time the size of adjacent medial scales (vs. slightly to moderately enlarged outer postmental scales, less than three time the size of adjacent medial scales in A. chlorocyanus). Anolis peynadoi differs further from A. cyanostictus by the absence of pale brown blotches above and anterior to shoulder as well as immediately posterior to eye (vs. such blotches present in A. cyanostictus) and by having smooth ventrals at midventer (vs. slightly keeled in A. cyanostictus). Anolis peynadoi differs from the species related to A. coelestinus by having (1) a bicolored dewlap with a darker posterior portion and with regularly spaced more or less homogeneous gorgetal scales (vs. dewlap yellowish green or brown in life dewlap with longitudinal or oblique double rows of gorgetal scales); (2) 17–21, usually <28 loreal scales in a maximum of 3–4 rows (vs. 18–60, usually >28 loreal scales in a maximum of 3–7 rows); and (3) a brown to reddish brown iris in life (vs. a blue iris). Anolis peynadoi differs from the species related to A. aliniger and A. singularis by (1) having a longer tail with a ratio tail length / SVL >1.7, usually >2.0 (vs. <1.7); (2) a distinct white subocular stripe that continues as a white streak onto lateral neck (vs. no such stripe and streak); (3) usually >38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; and (4) no conspicuously dark colored distal portion of tail in front of pale colored tail tip (vs. such a tail color pattern present, most obvious in life). For differences between A. peynadoi and the species described below, see account of the new species [Köhler & Hedges 2016: 66]. 
References
  • Barbour, T. 1935. A second list of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. Zoologica 19 (3): 77-141
  • Barbour, Thomas 1930. A list of Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians. Zoologica 11 (4): 61-116
  • Barbour,T. 1937. Third list of Antillean reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 82 (2): 77-166 - get paper here
  • Garcia R. Queral A. Powell R. Parmerlee J S Jr. Smith D D. Lathrop A. 1994. Evidence of hybridization among green anoles (Lacertilia: Polychrotidae) from Hispaniola. Carib. J. Sci. 30 (3-4): 279- 281.
  • Henderson, Robert W. & Robert Powell 2009. NATURAL HISTORY OF WEST INDIAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. University Press of Florida, 576 pp.
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten: Liste der im Jahr 2016 neu beschriebenen Reptilien Terraria-Elaphe (3): 54-70 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12.
  • Ramos, Yanerys M. and Robert Powell. 2001. Anolis chlorocyanus Duméril and Bibron. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (728): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1980. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies. Stud. on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 61: 86-127. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 1:1-216.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
 
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