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Anolis purpuronectes GRAY, MEZA-LÁZARO, POE & NIETO-MONTES DE OCA, 2016

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis purpuronectes GRAY, MEZA-LÁZARO, POE & NIETO-MONTES DE OCA 2016
Anolis barkeri — MEYER 1968 (in part)
Anolis barkeri — POWELL & BIRT 2001 (in part)
Norops purpuronectes — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionMexico (Oaxaca, S Veracruz)

Type locality: approximately 1.6 km N of Chalchijapa, municipality of Santa María Chimalapa, Oaxaca, Mexico, 17.04377° N, 94.66586° W, 268 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: MZFC 28961 (field number POE 4362), a male, collected on 18 November 2012 by Steven Poe, Donald Mahler, and Julián Velasco. Paratypes. Eleven specimens, all from Mexico: nine from Oaxaca, municipality of Santa María Chimalapa: four from the same locality as the holotype (MSB 94840, 94844, 94848, 94851); one from Campamento piloto Chalchijapa, 17.07694° N, 94.59917° W, 575 m (MZFC 18811), three from 1–2 km S Campamento piloto Chalchijapa, 304–335 m (MZFC 18807, 18814–15), one from 3 km SW Chalchijapa, 17.05417° N, 94.65389° W, 280 m (MZFC 18809); and two from municipality of Uxpanapa, Veracruz: one from Ejido Pancho Villa, 17.21872° N, 94.55581° W, 163 m (MZFC 28962), and one from approximately 9 km SE Ejido La Laguna, 17.17981° N, 94.58217° W, 165 m (MZFC 28963). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Anolis purpuronectes and A. barkeri are the only Mexican Anolis with semiaquatic ecology. They also are the only species in Mexico with two middorsal rows of caudal scales and narrow, indistinct toepads. Anolis purpuronectes overlaps A. barkeri in most scale characters (Table 1), but displays a starkly different male dewlap colour (purple versus a complex red, orange, and white dewlap in A. barkeri; Fig. 3). Meyer (1968) found that A. barkeri from La Gloria, Oaxaca (=A. purpuronectes) and Los Tuxtlas region, Veracruz, lacked a light lateral stripe 70%–79% of the time, whereas samples of A. barkeri from Mal Paso and Pichucalco, Chiapas, had at least a faint or incomplete stripe in all instances.

Comparisons. Anolis purpuronectes is unlikely to be confused with any other species besides A. barkeri because of its semiaquatic ecology, large body size (maximum SVL 90 mm) and distinctive scalation (Table 1). It differs from other large (> 85 mm maximum SVL) Mexican species in its two middorsal caudal scale rows, purple dewlap, and narrow, indistinct toepads. In addition, among large Mexican species, A. biporcatus is usually solid green dorsally (lacking the patterning and light lateral stripe of A. purpuronectes) and has a shorter, stockier body than A. purpuronectes; A. capito has an extremely short head and similar-sized dewlaps in males and females (long head and large male, very small female dewlap in A. purpuronectes); A. macrinii is usually solid green or olive brown dorsally (lacking the patterning and light lateral stripe of A. purpuronectes) with a moderate dewlap in females (very small or absent dewlap in females of A. purpuronectes); A. petersi is stockier and has a much smaller male dewlap (barely extending past the axillae) than A. purpuronectes (male dewlap extends to mid-chest; Fig. 3), and a moderate female dewlap (very small or absent dewlap in females of A. purpuronectes); and A. serranoi has a shorter body and longer limbs (toe of adpressed hindlimb usually extends past eye in A. serranoi; usually between ear and eye in A. purpuronectes), and displays fewer supralabials from the rostral to the center of the eye (6–8 in A. serranoi; 9–11 in A. purpuronectes). 
CommentSimilar species: A. barkeri (see Fig. 3 in Gray et al. 2016 for a comparison). 
EtymologyNamed after purpuronectes, a noun in apposition and a combination of the Latin adjective purpureus (purple) and the Greek noun nektes (a swimmer). 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • García-Padilla, E., Mata-Silva, V., Villalobos-Juárez, I., López-Esquivel, E. A., Lavariega, M. C., Rocha, A., DeSantis, D. L., Melgar-Martínez, A. I., Johnson, J. D., Fucsko, L. A., Lazcano, D., & Wilson, L. D. 2022. Anfibios y reptiles de la región de los Chimalapas, Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México:: composición, categorización distribucional, estado de conservación y significado para la biodiversidad. Biología Y Sociedad, 5(10), 37–76 - get paper here
  • Gray, Levi; Meza-Lázaro, Rubi; Poe, Steven; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes 2016. A new species of semiaquatic Anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from Oaxaca and Veracruz, Mexico. The Herpetological Journal 26 (4): 253-262 - get paper here
  • Meyer, J. R. 1968. Distribution and variation of the Mexican lizard, Anolis barkeri Schmidt (Iguanidae), with redescription of the species. Copeia 1968 (1): 89-95 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Powell, Robert and Randy A. Birt 2001. Anolis barkeri Schmidt Barker's Anole, Abaniquillo Arroyero. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (727): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Torres-Hernández, LA, Ramírez-Bautista A, Cruz-Elizalde R, Hernández-Salinas U, Berriozabal-Islas C, DeSantis DL, Johnson JD, Rocha A, García-Padilla E, Mata-Silva V, Fucsko LA, and Wilson LD. 2021. The herpetofauna of Veracruz, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 15(2) [General Section]: 72–155 - get paper here
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