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Anolis scriptus GARMAN, 1887

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis scriptus scriptus GARMAN 1887
Anolis scriptus leucophaeus GARMAN 1888
Anolis scriptus mariguanae COCHRAN 1931
Anolis scriptus sularum BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935 
Common NamesE: Southern Bahamas Anole, Silver Key Anole 
SynonymAnolis scriptus GARMAN 1887: 28
Anolis albipalpebralis BARBOUR 1916 (fide KLUGE 1984)
Anolis leucophaeus albipalpebralis — COCHRAN 1934: 18
Anolis scriptus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 338
Anolis scriptus — BRANDLEY & DE QUEIROZ 2004
Ctenonotus scriptus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus scriptus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis scriptus leucophaeus GARMAN 1888
Anolis leucophaeus GARMAN 1888: 109
Anolis moorei COPE 1895: 433
Anolis cinnamomeus COPE 1895: 433
Anolis leucophaeus — ROSEN 1911: 29
Anolis moorei — ROSEN 1911: 29
Anolis leucophaeus leucophaeus — COCHRAN 1934: 17
Anolis scriptus leucophaeus — RAND 1962: 3
Ctenonotus scriptus leucophaeus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 119
Ctenonotus scriptus leucophaeus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus scriptus leucophaeus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis scriptus mariguanae COCHRAN 1931
Anolis leucophaeus mariguanae COCHRAN 1931
Anolis leucophaeus mariguanae — COCHRAN 1934: 19
Anolis leucophaeus mariguanae — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Anolis scriptus mariguanae — RAND 1962: 3
Ctenonotus scriptus mariguanae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 119
Ctenonotus scriptus mariguanae — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus scriptus mariguanae — NICHOLSON et al. 2018

Anolis scriptus sularum BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935
Anolis leucophaeus sularum BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935: 354
Anolis leucophaeus sularum — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Anolis scriptus sularum — RAND 1962: 3
Ctenonotus scriptus sularum — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 120
Ctenonotus scriptus sularum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus scriptus sularum — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionBahamas, Great Inagua, Turks I, Caicos I

scriptus: Turks and Caicos Is. Type locality: Silver and Lena Keys, Florida; emended and restricted by Rand, 1962, to Silver Key, Turks and Caicos Islands.

leucophaeus: Bahama Is.: Great Inagua I. including Sheep Cay, Little Inagua I.

mariguanae: Bahama Is.: Mayaguana I. and Booby Cay.

sularum: Bahama Is.: Samana Cay (including Booby Cay), West Plana Cay. Type locality: “West Booby Cay just off Atwood's Cay”  
TypesSyntypes: MCZ 972-73.
Lectotype: MCZ 65950, selected by Rand, 1962.
Holotype: MCZ 6226 [leucophaeus]
Holotype: USNM 81346 [mariguanae]
Holotype: MCZ 38013 [sularum]
Holotype: MCZ 11954 [albipalpebralis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis [sularum]: Resembles Anolis leucophaeus mariguanae and Anolis leucophaeus albipalpebralis if both mariguanae and albipalpebralis are worthy of separate recognition, but it differs from them in coloration (in alcohol) and shape of the tail. The new subspecies is dark brown above) decidedly darker than the dorsal ground color of either mariguanae or albipalpebralis without any trace of the very light lateral streak or light lateral spotting seen in the last named two subspecies. Ventrally it is also dark, being strongly suffused with the same colored pigment that colors the back. The feet of this form are often lighter than the rest of the body. The tail is shaped like that of typical leucophaeus the adult male being without the broad tail fin possessed by adult males of mariguanae and albipalpebralis. Sularum has no trace of the leopard spotting of leucophams proper. The dark coloration of the types and paratypes of this form cannot, in our opinion be ascribed to the preservation as they were preserved in the same way as the other anoles collected on the same expedition [Barbour & Shreve 1935: 354].

Diagnosis (mariguanae). Similar in form to Anolis leucophaeus leucophaeus (Garman), but differing from it in coloration. Ground color drab gray above, lavender-gray beneath, often with a wide clove-brown lateral band which originates on the loreal region, passes through the eye and above the ear, and widens above the shoulder, continuing onto the base of the tail and gradually fading out; a light area usually bounding its lower border; a second dark lateral stripe beginning on the malar region just behind the mental, continuing back beneath the ear and merging in front of the shoulder with the upper lateral stripe In some cases, in other cases widening and suffusing the entire side of the throat and upper arm region with a dusky mottling; skin of gular fan lavender-gray, the scales white or olive-yellow. The young have dark latero-ventral reticulations, and the throat usually has a series of dark longitudinal lines. In adult males the tail fin is large and its upper edge is indistinctly mottled with dark in the region of the rays. Limbs sometimes unmarked, sometimes with wide, irregular dark bars. Scales on limbs a little smaller than in leucophaeus proper; scales of tail a little larger. (Cochran 1934) 
CommentFor illustrations see Cope, 1895 (as Anolis moorei and A. cinnamomeus); Klingel, 1940; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Ecomorph class: trunk-ground. A. scriptus has been shown to show selection for body size, relative limb length and toepad size induced by a hurricane (Donihue et al. 2018).

Species group: Ctenonotus cristatellus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Barbour, T. 1916. Additional notes on West Indian reptiles and amphibians. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 215-220. - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and B. Shreve. 1935. Concerning some Bahamian reptiles, with notes on the fauna. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 40: 347-365.
  • Barbour, Thomas & Loveridge, Arthur 1946. First supplement to typical reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96 (2): 59-214. - get paper here
  • Brandley, M.C. & De Queiroz, K. 2004. Phylogeny, ecomorphological evolution, and historical biogeography of the Anolis cristatellus series. Herpetological Monographs 18: 90-126 - get paper here
  • Cochran, D. M. 1931. New Bahaman reptiles. J. Washington Acad. Sci. Sci. 21: 39-40. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D. M. 1934. Herpetological collections from the West Indies made by Dr. Paul Bartsch under The Walter Rathbone Bacon Scholarship, 1928-1930. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 92 (7): 1-48. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1895. The Batrachia and Reptilia of the University of Pennsylvania West Indian expedition of 1890 and 1891. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 46 [1894]: 429-442 - get paper here
  • Donihue, Colin M.; Anthony Herrel, Anne-Claire Fabre, Ambika Kamath, Anthony J. Geneva, Thomas W. Schoener, Jason J. Kolbe & Jonathan B. Losos 2018. Hurricane-induced selection on the morphology of an island lizard. Nature 560: 88-91 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles. Iguanidae. Bull. Essex Inst. 19: 25-50. - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1888. Reptiles and batrachians from the Caymans and from the Bahamas. Collected by Prof. C. J. Maynard for the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Bull. Essex Inst. 20: 101-113 - get paper here
  • Gorman, George C.;Thomas, Richard;Atkins, Leonard 1968. Intra- and interspecific chromosome variation in the lizard Anolis cristatellus and its closest relatives. Breviora (293): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Klingel,G.C. 1940. The Ocean Island (Inagua). Dodd, Mead Co., NY: xii + 385 pp.
  • Laska, A.L. 1970. The Structural Niche of Anolis scriptus on Inagua. Breviora (349): 1-6 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rand,A.S. 1962. Anolis scriptus GARMAN 1887, an earlier name for Anolis leucophaeus GARMAN 1888. Breviora (153): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Rosén, Nils 1911. Contributions to the Fauna of the Bahamas I. A general account of the fauna, with remarks on the physiography of the islands. II. The Reptiles III. The Fishes. Lunds univ. arsskrift 7 (5): 1-72
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Smith, G. R. 1994. Observations on activity in two lizards (Anolis scriptus and Leiocephalus psammodromus). Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30 (3): 120-125 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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