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Anolis vermiculatus COCTEAU, 1837

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Cuban Stream Anole, Vinales Anole 
SynonymAnolis vermiculatus COCTEAU in DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 128
Ptychonotus (Deiroptyx) vermiculatus — FITZINGER 1843: 17, 66
Anolis vermiculatus — BOULENGER 1885: 41
Deiroptyx vermiculatus — BARBOUR & RAMSDEN 1919: 130
Anolis vermiculatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 91
Anolis vermiculatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 353
Anolis vermiculatus — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 272
Anolis vermiculatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Deiroptyx vermiculata — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Deiroptyx vermiculata — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCuba (Pinar del Rio)

Type locality: Cuba; restricted by Ruibal, 1964, to Viñales, Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba.  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 2349 and MNHN-RA 2407 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Deiroptyx): Support for this genus is based on 47 apomorphies including five morphological features and 42 molecular ones. There are three unequivocal morphological features: size of interparietal scale increased (7: u to m); decreased mean number of ventral scales in 5% of snout-to-vent length (20: s to n); and pterygoid teeth present (71: z to a). There are 14 unequivocal molecular apomorphies (see Appendix II, NICHOLSON et al. 2012: 23).
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1917; Barbour and Ramsden, 1919; Peters, 1970, Flaschendräger 2002.

Habitat: (semi-) aquatic species! (Baeckens et al. 2021)

Type species: Anolis vermiculatus is the type species of Deiroptyx FITZINGER 1843 (SAVAGE & GUYER 2004).

Fossil species: Deiroptyx dominicana (Rieppel 1980)

Species group: Deiroptyx vermiculata species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
EtymologyThis generic name is derived from the Greek deir = hump or deire (= neck, throat) and ptyx = fold, presumably in reference to the well-developed nuchal crest in males of this species. The name is feminine in gender. 
  • Baeckens, S.; M. Temmerman, S. Gorb, C. Neto, M. Whiting & R. Van Damme 2021. Convergent evolution of skin surface microarchitecture and increased skin hydrophobicity in semi-aquatic anole lizards. Journal of Experimental Biology 224(19): jeb242939 ( - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Flaschendräger, A. 2002. Beobachtungen an Anolis-Arten in der Cordillera de Guaniguanico, Provinz Pinar del Río, West-Kuba. Herpetofauna 24 (138): 5-18 - get paper here
  • Fläschendräger, Axel 2017. Beobachtungen an einigen Anolis-Arten im westlichen Kuba. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (5): 52-63 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Losos, Jonathan B., Manuel Leal, Richard E. Glor, Kevin de Queiroz, Paul E. Hertz, Lourdes Rodríguez Schettino, Ada Chamizo Lara, Todd R. Jackman & Allan Larson 2003. Niche lability in the evolution of a Caribbean lizard community. Nature 424: 542-545 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Peters, G. 1970. Zur Taxionomie und Zoogeographie der kubanischen anolinen Eidechsen (Reptilia, Iguanide). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 46: 197-234. - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes (ed.) 1999. The iguanid lizards of Cuba. University Press of Florida, 428 pp.
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes; Marcellini, Dale L.; Novo Rodríguez, Julio 1987. Algunos aspectos ecológicos sobre Anolis vermiculatus (Sauria: Iguanidae) en Soroa, Pinar del Río, Cuba. Poeyana (343): 1-9
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes; Novo Rodríguez, Julio 1985. Nuevos datos etoecológicos sobre Anolis vermiculatus (Sauria: Iguanidae). Poeyana (296): 1-11
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96 - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1964. An annotated checklist and key to the anoline lizards of Cuba. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 130 (8): 475-520. - get paper here
  • Savage, J. M. and C. Guyer 2004. Application of anole lizard generic names proposed by Wagler, 1830 and Fitzinger, 1843. Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (3): 303-305 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1917. Cuban amphibians and reptiles collected for the United States National Museum from 1899 to 1902. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 53: 259-291 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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