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Antillotyphlops richardi (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1844)

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Higher TaxaTyphlopidae (Typhlopinae), Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Richard's Worm Snake; locally known as “Ground Snake” 
SynonymTyphlops richardii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 290
Typhlops richardii — JAN 1864
Typhlops richardi — GARMAN 1887: 278
Typhlops richardii — GRANT 1937: 512
Typhlops richardi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 655
Typhlops richardii — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 117
Typhlops richardi — KORNILIOS et al. 2013
Antillotyphlops richardi — HEDGES et al. 2014
Typhlops richardi — PYRON & WALLACH 2014
Antillotyphlops richardi — NAGY et al. 2015
Typhlops richardi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 770 
DistributionPuerto Rico, Caicos I, Turks I, Anegada

Type locality: St. Thomas, US. Virgin Islands. Restricted to the Virgin islands by Hedges & Thomas 1991  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 3220 and RNH 3713 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Maximum TL 342 mm; TL/taillength 30-48; TL/midbody diameter 29-49; middorsal scales 312-425; scale rows 22-20, 22-20-18, or 20-18 with reduction occurring at variable distances along body in different populations; head shape rounded to ogival and flattened; rostral narrow to broad in dorsal aspect, oval, parallel, or tapered, flared or not flared on apex; postoculars 2, rarely 1. Coloration bicolor with pale tan to dark brown dorsal coloration ending abruptly along midlateral line, pigmented scales dropping out over 1-2 scale rows or fading along midlateral zone; some populations/individuals lightened and mottled with no pigmentation on dorsum; with or without light band across tail (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 655). 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1904 (as T. lumbricalis); Schmidt, 1928 (as T. platycephalus); Thomas, 1976; Philibosian and Yntema, 1977; Rivero, 1978; MacLean, 1982. 
EtymologyNamed after Louis Claude Marie Richard (1754-1821), a botanist who was in the West Indies and Central America (1780-1784). He became Professor of Botany in Paris (1790). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Carey, W.M. 1972. The Herpetology of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci. 12(1/2): 79-89.
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1844. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.6. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 609 pp. - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S. B. and R. Thomas. 1991. Cryptic species of snakes (Typhlopidae: Typhlops) from the Puerto Rico Bank detected by protein electrophoresis. Herpetologica 47: 448-459. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1864. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 3. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 9. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris [1864] - get paper here
  • Kornilios, P.; S. Giokas, P. Lymberakis, R. Sindaco 2013. Phylogenetic position, origin and biogeography of Palearctic and Socotran blind-snakes (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68 (1): 35–41 - get paper here
  • Legler, J.M. 1959. A new blind snake (genus Typhlops) from Cuba. Herpetologica 15 (2): 105-112 - get paper here
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Mayer, G.C. & Lazell, J. 1988. Distributional records for reptiles and amphibians from the Puerto Rico Bank. Herpetological Review 19 91): 23-24 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • NAGY, ZOLTÁN T.; ANGELA B. MARION, FRANK GLAW, AURÉLIEN MIRALLES,<br />JOACHIM NOPPER, MIGUEL VENCES & S. BLAIR HEDGES 2015. Molecular systematics and undescribed diversity of Madagascan scolecophidian snakes (Squamata: Serpentes). Zootaxa 4040 (1): 031–047 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R. and Yntema, J.A. 1977. Annotated checklist of the birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians of the Virgin Islands & Puerto Rico. Information Services, Frederiksted, St. Croix, 48 pp.
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1976. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. I. 1968-1975. Herpetologica 32 (1): 81-85 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R.A. & Wallach, V. 2014. Systematics of the blindsnakes (Serpentes: Scolecophidia: Typhlopoidea) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Zootaxa 3829 (1): 001–081 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724. - get paper here
  • Thomas, R. 1965. A congregation of the blind snake, Typhlops richardi. Herpetologica 21 (4): 309 - get paper here
  • Thomas, R. 1966. A reassessment of the Virgin Islands Typhlops with the description of two new subspecies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 13:187-201 [1965] - get paper here
  • Thomas, R. 1976. Systematics of Antillean blind snakes of the genus Typhlops (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Louisiana State Univ.: xvi + 288pp.
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